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Kewpie doll effect

A Few of the Reasons Why Babies Cry


Gas on stomach needs to be burped

Soiled diaper

Diaper rash


Too hot

Too cold

Startled and frightened by a loud noise or strange sound ( dog barking, siren, door slam, etc.)

When the baby wakes in a place other than where he went to sleep.


Over tired

Over stimulated

Afraid of the dark or unfamiliar person

Has a medical problem

In pain

Allergic to something

Not enough stimulating activity

Wants human presence or compassionate contact - (separation anxiety)

Wants to be rocked or held

Formula or breast milk doesn't agree with the baby

Feels lonely, insecure and isolated from activity - wants stimulation

To release tension

Handled too roughly

Handled too much

Hasn't learned to self calm

Itchy clothing or irritated by clothing tags

Not getting enough sleep

Jiggled or bounced up and down too much and/or too vigorously

Sun is in the baby's eyes or the lights are too bright

The pacifier tastes unpleasant and needs washing

The pacifier fell out of the baby's mouth

Annoyed by hearing a TV program or stimulating complex music

Clothing or diaper too tight

Something is in the baby's eye

Growing pains


Insect bite

The baby's foot or arm is caught or he bumped into something

Unpleasant smell

Sibling pinched, hit or mishandled the baby

A hair is wrapped tightly around a toe or finger, cutting off circulation.

Feeding solid foods or sugar too soon

The baby is frustrated



2 RESEARCH: 'BONDING', Attachment


            THE concept that there is a special period after birth during which mothers become ''bonded'' to their infants has prompted many hospitals to allow and encourage mothers and fathers to have immediate and prolonged contact with their newborn babies.

            The mother-infant bond in the first hours and days of life was said to improve mothering, increase the likelihood of breast feeding, enhance child development and prevent child abuse and neglect.

            Now, however, the very existence of this ''sensitive'' period when mothers are best able to become emotionally attached to their babies is challenged by a number of researchers. The critics say that if early contact affects how well a mother cares for her baby, it has prompted feelings of guilt and fear of failure in parents who did not share the first minutes and hours of life with their infants.

            Even so, critics who deny the existence of a special bonding period approve of the changes in hospital practice the theory has wrought. Allowing mothers more time with their babies after birth and permitting fathers to be present at delivery make childbirth happier and more natural for parents without jeopardizing the health of either mother or baby. Such changes have been encouraged by the natural childbirth movement, among others.

            As one father said, two years after his daughter was born by Caesarian delivery, ''We're all getting along just fine considering we didn't have the chance to get bonded.'' Other parents who may not have the opportunity for early contact include those whose babies are sick or premature, those who adopt children and those who would rather not be with the baby immediately after birth.

            The criticism comes at a time when the pediatricians who first popularized the notion of mother-infant bonding, Dr. Marshall H. Klaus and Dr. John H. Kennell, are themselves modifying their views. In their first book, ''Maternal-Infant Bonding,'' published in 1976, they wrote: ''There is a sensitive period in the first minutes and hours of life during which it is necessary that the mother and father have close contact with their neonate for later development to be optimal.'' In an interview Dr. Klaus, chairman of pediatrics at Michigan State University at the time, said ''I wish we'd never written the statement.''

            ''We don't agree with that statement now,'' Dr. Klaus continued. ''Rather, I'd say there is a suggestion that for some mothers additional contact in the first hours and days of life may be helpful and in some it may have a profound effect on how they care for the baby, especially poor mothers with few social supports.''

            However, Dr. Klaus added, ''Right now, there are no studies that confirm or deny the presence of a sensitive period or that measure how much contact is needed between mother and baby during the first hours or days of life to have an effect.''

            A new edition of the Klaus-Kennell book was published retitled ''Parent-Infant Bonding''. In it, the authors acknowledge that ''In spite of a lack of early contact experienced by parents in hospital births in the past 20 to 30 years, almost all these parents became bonded to their babies. The human is highly adaptable, and there are many fail-safe routes to attachment. Sadly, some parents who missed the bonding experience have felt that all was lost for their future relationship. This was (and is) completely incorrect.''

            In the interview Dr. Klaus said, the word bonding has become confused with epoxy glue. This is too literal an interpretation. But just because the work has been misinterpreted doesn't mean you throw it out.''

            The big critic of the Klaus-Kennell hypothesis and the data that are said to support it is Dr. Michael E. Lamb, a developmental psychologist at the University of Utah Medical Center. According to Dr. Lamb, of the more than 20 studies of early contact, most ''actually show few if any differences between mothers who were allowed early contact and those who were denied it.''

His conclusion was based on these observations:

1}         Although several researchers have reported that early contact enhances a mother's behavior toward her child, other studies have not found the same effects. Furthermore, what effects were found were largely short-lived, disappearing by the time the baby was a few months old.

2}        The various studies examined a large number of measures of maternal behavior, but only a few were significantly different between the two groups of mothers, suggesting that such differences may have been due to chance, not actual cause and effect.

3}         Many of the effects that were found have little or no relevance to how strongly a mother is attached to her baby. For example, one study showed that mothers with early contact were more likely to be sitting up or leaning on one elbow than mothers without such contact. Others related early contact to longer breast feeding. But according to Dr. M.A. Curry, associate professor of family nursing at Oregon Health Science University, how long a mother continues to nurse is influenced by many factors, not just her attachment to her baby.

4}         In some studies, the effects found could have been due to differences in how the hospital staff acted toward early-contact mothers in contrast to those given routine maternity care.

5}         In some studies, pre-existing differences between the groups of mothers before childbirth may have accounted for later differences in maternal behavior.

           In a study carefully designed to overcome such flaws, Marilyn J. Svejda and her co-workers in Denver found no effect of early contact on 28 discrete measures of maternal behavior. Dr. Svejda, a nurse and developmental psychologist who was at the University of Michigan School of Medicine at the time of the study, concluded that ''the effects of early contact, if any, are extremely subtle and short-lived and operate only under selective conditions.''

            Dr. Klaus maintains that Dr. Lamb misquoted or misunderstood some supporting studies and that he didn't read the latest version of the Klaus-Kennell book, where claims for the value of early contact are more moderate than in the first edition.

            Dr. Barbara M. Korsch of Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, on the other hand, largely agrees with Dr. Lamb's comments. In an editorial in the Journal of Pediatrics, she wrote that many of the studies of early contact are ''methodologically flawed, which is not surprising, because childbirth, mothering practices, mother-child relationships and child development are complex human phenomena for which we have few appropriate measures.''

            Dr. Korsch said that ''believers and disciples (of the Klaus-Kennell work) have often been so dogmatic and evangelical that they did a disservice to their cause.''

            ''The process of bonding to a child is long-term and complex,'' Dr. Lamb said in an interview. ''In the context of all other things, early contact is not very important.''

            He urged that recent changes in obstetrical practices be continued but added that ''medical science should be able to do such things because they are humane, regardless of whether they have long term benefits. It's good to allow early contact when parents want it and to let fathers into the delivery room. Birthing is a social and emotional activity, not a disease.''

            In one of the many critical comments included in the Klaus-Kennell book, Dr. Curry emphasized that the mother should decide how much contact she has with her newborn and should not be made to feel guilty if she would rather not be with her baby. ''Events that foster attachment for some families can have a negative effect on other families. An exhausted mother, for example, may prefer to rest alone and may resent having her infant during this time.''

           Dr. Klaus urges continued study of early contact and its effects on bonding and maternal and child behavior. He said, for example, that if the suggestive finding that early contact reduces the risk of child abuse were borne out by larger studies, it could have a profound social impact.



TABLE 20: BIOLOGY, INFANCY AND MOTHERING SOURCE: Wenda Trevathan, Professor of Anthropology

          Table 20: Biology, Infancy and Mothering

'Mothering could be influenced by biology' (instincts). Wenda Trevathan, Professor of Anthropology

Source: Wenda Trevathan, Regents Professor of Anthropology, New Mexico State University, USA


Legacies related to birth

- need for emotional (and physical) support during labor and delivery

.- desire for contact and interaction with the newborn infant immediately after birth

These needs (and associated behaviors) led to higher survival and better health of mothers and infants in the past



Women and infants tend to remain together for much of the first few hours after birth

Fathers and other family members are often present at or soon after birth

Rooming in is the norm in most hospitals and birth centers

Breastfeeding is initiated within a couple of hours after birth


the first hour after birth is a special or sensitive time.

the first hour after birth is important for mother-infant bonding



Aspects that impact childbirth

bipedalism = narrow pelvis

expanded brain = large neonatal head

delayed development of brain - 75 percent of brain growth takes place after birth


Helpless babies place different demands on mothers

Bipedalism also meant a different shape to the birth canal

Most mammals give birth alone

Worldwide there is a desire for others to be present at birth for humans


Mother-Infant Bonding

"There is a sensitive period in the first minutes and hours of life

during which it is necessary that the mother and father have close contact with their neonate

for later development to be optimal.

Klaus and Kennell, 1976; (emphasis added).


Many studies have concluded that skin-to-skin contact

soon after birth and early suckling

positively influence mother-infant interaction

and breastfeeding success

maternal behavior

1)following a pattern of tactile contact upon first interaction with the infant

2)holding the infant to the left of the body

3)elevating the pitch of the voice when talking to the infant

4)looking at the infant en face

5)initiating nursing within an hour of birth

maternal behavior in MAMMALS

- licking the infants

- consuming the placenta

- vocalizing

- allowing access to nipples

behavior for human mothers

Preference for holding the baby on the left side of the body,

regardless of maternal


elevating the pitch of the voice when talking to or toward their infants.


eye contact and preference for looking at the infant in the en face position

left lateral preference

data from El Paso Texas study

- 71 percent of the mothers held their infants on the left side when they first received them

- 67 percent held their infants on the left side for most of the first hour after birth


touch and skin-to-skin contact at birth

- to stroke and massage stimulates breathing

- it provides warmth (the maternal 'nest')

- it soothes the infant, it reduces energy expenditure

- it rubs in the vernix, which may prevent dehydration and infection (some of the vernix is rubbed in by birth contractions)

Touch and massage may replace licking

- it cleans the infant so that breathing is not inhibited; it removes odors

- it dries and provides warmth

- it stimulates breathing, digestion and elimination

- it orients the infant toward the nipples

- it promotes bonding

vernix caseosa

- it protects the skin from dehydration in the amniotic fluid and upon exposure to the air

- it has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties both in utero and after birth

- it protects the skin from bacteria and other agents in the extra uterine environment

- it promotes colonization of useful microbes

left lateral holding, eye contact, and high-pitched voice

- heartbeat, eyes and voice soothe the infant and conserve energy

- left holding facilitates eye contact

(infants prefers to look to the right)


mothers engage in behaviors that increase infant survival at birth

and infant can save mother's life!

Infant contacts breast

oxytocin released

uterus contracts,

inhibits bleeding

The first hour after birth

is probably the single most vulnerable hour in most people's lives

- Events and behaviors in that hour may have made the difference between life and death for mothers and infants in the past

- It was a critical period (for survival) in the past, but is it still important today?


How can it not be important?

Consider all of the things that happen before, during and immediately after birth

what mothers bring to birth

what happens to them physically


what happens to them emotionally

the presence of the newborn infant

Maternal sensitive period?

The events of pregnancy and the early postpartum period may

facilitate the process of attachment to offspring

and make the transition from nonmother to mother somewhat easier.

Allison Fleming, 1990

Maternal sensitive period?

... interaction with infants during the early postpartum period of heightened receptivity to infants,

[may] increase the likelihood that mothers will continue to respond in a nurturing fashion at a later point

when physiological or physical influences associated with the newborn period are no longer present.

Allison Fleming, 1990

Maternal sensitive period?

First hour after birth is importantfor mother-infant bonding

but not necessary.



What is the legacy of women at birth?

A strongly felt need for emotional support at the time of birth

and contact with infant immediately after birth.



Source: Wenda Trevathan, Regents Professor of Anthropology, New Mexico State University, USA

        The Attachment Bond

            Attachment and Adult Relationships


            Have you ever been in love? We all have, at least once. The attachment bond is the term for your first interactive love relationship the one you had with your primary caregiver as an infant, usually your mother. This mother-child attachment bond shapes an infant's brain, profoundly influencing your self-esteem, your expectations of others, and your ability to attract and maintain successful adult relationships. By learning about attachment, you can build healthier, attuned relationships and communicate effectively.

            Attachment, bonding and relationships

            You were born preprogramed to bond with one very significant person your primary caregiver, probably your mother. Like all infants, you were a bundle of emotions intensely experiencing fear, anger, sadness, and joy. The emotional attachment that grew between you and your caregiver was the first interactive relationship of your life, and it depended upon nonverbal communication. The bonding you experienced determined how you would relate to other people throughout your life, because it established the foundation for all verbal and nonverbal communication in your future relationships.

            Individuals, who experience confused, frightened, or broken emotional communications during their infancy often grow into adults who have difficulty understanding their own emotions and the feelings of others. This limits their ability to build or maintain successful relationships. Attachment the relationship between infants and their primary caregivers is responsible for:

         shaping the success or failure of future intimate relationships

         the ability to maintain emotional balance

         the ability to enjoy being ourselves and to find satisfaction in being with others

         the ability to rebound from disappointment, discouragement, and misfortune

            Scientific study of the brain and the role attachment plays in shaping it has given us a new basis for understanding why vast numbers of people have difficulty communicating with the most important individuals in their work and love lives. Once, we could only use guesswork to determine why important relationships never evolved, developed chronic problems, or fell apart. Now, thanks to new insights into brain development, we can understand what it takes to help build and nurture productive and meaningful relationships at home and at work.

            What is the attachment bond?

            The mother child bond is the primary force in infant development, according to the attachment bond theory pioneered by English psychiatrist John Bowlby and American psychologist Mary Ainsworth. The theory gained strength through worldwide scientific studies and the use of brain imaging technology.

            The attachment bond theory states that the relationship between infants and primary caretakers is responsible for:

         shaping of future relationships

         strengthening or damaging our abilities to focus, be conscious of our feelings, and calm ourselves

 the ability to bounce back from misfortune         Research reveals the infant/adult interactions that result in a successful, secure attachment, are those where both mother and infant can sense the other s feelings and emotions. In other words, an infant feels safe and understood when the mother responds to their cries and accurately interprets their changing needs. Unsuccessful or insecure attachment occurs when there is a failure in this communication of feelings.

            Researchers found that successful adult relationships depend on the ability to:

         manage stress

         stay 'tuned in' with emotions

         use communicative body language

         be playful in a mutually engaging manner

         be readily forgiving, relinquishing grudges

             The same research also found that an insecure attachment may be caused by abuse, but it is also likely to be caused by isolation or loneliness.

            These discoveries offer a new glimpse into successful love relationships, providing the keys to identifying and repairing a love relationship.

            The attachment bond shapes an infant s brain

            For better or for worse, the infant brain is influenced by the attachment bond a baby s first love relationship. When the primary caretaker can manage personal stress, calm the infant, communicate through emotion, share joy, and forgive easily, the young child s nervous system becomes  securely attached.  The strong foundation of a secure attachment bond enables the child to be self-confident, trusting, hopeful, and comfortable in the face of conflict. As an adult, he will be creative, flexible, hopeful, and optimistic.

            Our secure attachment bond shapes our abilities to:

         feel safe

         develop meaningful connections with others

         explore our world

         deal with stress

         balance emotions

         experience comfort and security

         make sense of our lives

         create positive memories and expectations of relationships

            Attachment bonds are as unique as we are. Primary caretakers don't have to be perfect. They do not have to always be in tune with their infants' emotions, but it helps if they are emotionally available the majority of the time.

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