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Questions & Answers
+ 1. Name a few of the Reasons Why Babies Cry
Gas on the stomach—needs to be burped
Startled and frightened by a loud noise or strange sound (dog barking, siren, door slam, etc.)
When the baby wakes in a place other than where he went to sleep.
Afraid of the dark or unfamiliar person
Has a medical problem
Allergic to something
Not enough stimulating activity
Wants human presence or compassionate contact—(separation anxiety)
Wants to be rocked or held
Formula or breast milk doesn’t agree with the baby
Feels lonely, insecure and isolated from activity—wants stimulation
To release tension
Handled too roughly
Handled too much
Hasn’t learned to self calm
Itchy clothing or irritated by clothing tags
In need of sleep
Jiggled or bounced up and down too much and/or too vigorously
Sun is in the baby’s eyes or the lights are too bright
The pacifier tastes unpleasant and needs washing
The pacifier fell out of the baby’s mouth
Annoyed by hearing a TV program or stimulating complex music
Clothing or diaper too tight
Something is in the baby’s eye
The baby’s foot or arm is caught or he bumped into something
Sibling pinched, hit or mishandled the baby
A hair is wrapped tightly around a toe or finger, cutting off circulation.
Feeding solid foods or sugar too soon
The baby is frustrated
+ 2. What is the attachment bond?
According to the attachment bond theory the mother-child bond is the primary force in infant development; this was pioneered by English psychiatrist John Bowlby and American psychologist Mary Ainsworth. The theory gained strength through worldwide scientific studies and the use of brain imaging technology.
The attachment bond theory states that the relationship between infants and primary caretakers is responsible for:
• shaping of future relationships
• strengthening or damaging our abilities to focus, be conscious of our feelings, and calm ourselves
• the ability to enjoy being ourselves and to find satisfaction to be with others
Research reveals the infant/adult interactions that result in a successful, secure attachment, are those where both mother and infant can sense the other’s feelings and emotions. In other words, an infant feels safe and understood when the mother responds to his cries and accurately interprets his changing needs. Unsuccessful or insecure attachment occurs when there is a failure in this communication of feelings.
+ 3. Explain the Attachment Theory
The infant will form an attachment to any sensitive and responsive caregiver, although it is usually the mother who is the primary attachment figure.
Within attachment theory, attachment means an affectional bond or tie between an individual and an attachment figure (usually a caregiver).
In child-to-adult relationships, the child’s tie is called the “attachment” and the caregiver’s equivalent is referred to as the “care-giving bond”.
Infants form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. The quality of the social engagement is more influential than the amount of time spent together. Although the biological mother is usually the principal attachment figure, the role can be taken on by anyone who consistently behaves in a “mothering” or care giving way over a period of time. In attachment theory, this means a set of behaviors that involves engaging in lively social interaction with the infant and responding readily to signals and approaches. Fathers or any other individuals are equal principal attachment figures if they provide most of the child care and related social interaction.
Some infants direct attachment behavior (proximity seeking) towards more than one attachment figure, almost as soon as they start to show discrimination between caregivers; most do so during their second year. These figures are arranged hierarchically, with the principal attachment figure at the top. The set-goal of the attachment behavioral system is to maintain a bond with an accessible and available attachment figure. “Alarm” is the term used for activation of the attachment behavioral system caused by fear of danger. “Anxiety” is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive, separation distress occurs. In infants, physical separation can cause anxiety and anger, followed by sadness and despair. By age 3 or 4, physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child’s bond with the attachment figure.
+ 4. Talk about the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis
Maternal deprivation hypothesis is —breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early years of his life will have serious and irreversible effects on his intellectual, social, and emotional development.
A study of a group of children referred to a child guidance clinic, because they were juvenile thieves. He compared them to a control group of children who were referred to the clinic due to emotional problems, but who had not committed any crimes. He found that 32 percent of the juvenile thieves were affectionless psychopaths (lacked guilt and remorse), whereas none of the children in the control group were affectionless psychopaths. Of the juvenile thieves who were affectionless psychopaths, 86 percent had experienced early separation. Spitz (1945).
Children in poor orphanages and other institutions in South America were studied. The children in these orphanages received little attention from the staff and many suffered from anaclitic depression (helplessness and loss of appetite). The anaclitic depression was attributed to their lack of emotional care and separation from their mothers. Spitz and Wolf (1946).
Hundred children, who became seriously depressed after staying in hospital, were studied. The children recovered well if the separation from their mothers lasted less than 3 months.
+ 5. What is the aim of the Forty Four Thieves Study?
John Bowlby believed that the relationship between the infant and his mother during the first 5 years of life was crucial to socialization. He believed that disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of emotional difficulties, juvenile delinquency and antisocial behavior. To support his hypothesis, he studied 44 adolescent juvenile delinquents in a child guidance clinic.
To investigate the effects of maternal deprivation on people; in order to see whether delinquents have suffered deprivation. According to the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis, breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early stages of his life is likely to have serious effects on his emotional, intellectual and social development.
+ 6. What do reflexes have to do with learning and behavior?
Motor control lays the foundation for learning and self control. We acquire new skills by moving our bodies intentionally. To track visually left to right, to shape consonants in the mouth, and to form letters, we need to have intentional control of the muscles involved. When those muscles obey an unconscious reflex instead of responding to our intention, then the activity is confusing and cannot become an automatic learned skill.
Academic learning depends upon the atomization of basic skills at a physical level. If a child fails to develop this automatic motor control, a teacher might observe such symptoms as reversals in reading and writing, disarticulations, poor impulse control, difficulty reading body language, or unsatisfactory peer relationships, despite good intelligence. Change is unlikely unless the underlying neuro-developmental problem is addressed.
+ 7. Define Neonatal Reflexes
Neonatal reflexes or primitive reflexes are the inborn behavioral patterns that develop during uterine life. They should be fully present at birth and are gradually inhibited by higher centers in the brain during the first 3 to 12 months of postnatal life. These reflexes are present immediately after birth and include swallowing, blinking, sucking, hiccupping, urinating and defecating. These typical reflexes are not learned. They are involuntary and essential for a newborn’s survival.
+ 8. Define Primitive reflexes
Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes disappear or are inhibited by the frontal lobes as a child moves through normal child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes.
Older children and adults with atypical neurology (for instance, people with cerebral palsy) may retain these reflexes and primitive reflexes may re-appear in adults because of certain neurological conditions, including but not limited to dementia, traumatic lesions and strokes. An individual with cerebral palsy and typical intelligence can learn to suppress these reflexes, but the reflex might resurface under certain conditions such as during an extreme startle reaction. Reflexes may also be limited to those areas affected by the atypical neurology, such as individuals whose cerebral palsy affects only their legs, retaining the Babinski reflex, but having normal speech; in individuals with hemiplegia, the reflex might be seen in the foot on the affected side only.
Primitive reflexes are mainly tested with suspected brain injury; to test the functioning of the frontal lobe. If they are not suppressed properly they are ‘frontal release signs’. Atypical primitive reflexes are also being researched as potential early warning signs of autistic spectrum disorders.
+ 9. Describe the 3 Tonic Neck Reflexes
Not everybody understands the Tonic Neck Reflexes. Research had me confused until I specifically researched the Tonic Neck Reflexes instead of Neonatal Reflexes or Primitive Reflexes.
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR)
(As if stretching to grab a toy on the side of the head)
Head movement elicits this reflex, which is strongly present at birth. It is thought to play an active role in a spontaneous vertex delivery of the baby and in its survival in the first few months of life. This reflex is present before birth, but normally vanishes around 6 months and should not be present after 1 year of age.
It is also known as the fencing reflex because of the characteristic position of the infant’s arms and head, which resembles that of a trained fencer. When the face is turned to one side, the arm and leg on the side to which the face is turned extend, and the arm and leg on the opposite side, is flexed.
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR)
(To arch the back)
The tonic labyrinthine reflex (TLR) is a primitive reflex found in newborn humans. With this reflex, tilting the head back while lying on the back, causes the back to stiffen and arch backwards, the legs to straighten, stiffen, and push together, the toes to point, the arms to bend at the elbows and wrists, and the hands to become fisted or the fingers to curl. The presence of this reflex beyond the newborn stage is also referred to as an abnormal extension pattern or extensor tone.
This reflex should be fully inhibited by 3 and a half years and is strongly related to the infant’s muscle tone. As the developing brain gradually inhibits the TLR the baby starts to lift his head up and as the reflex is fully controlled the growing child gains increasing control over his muscle movements.
Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex
To want to crawl
This is a normal response in infants to assume the crawl position by extending the arms and bending the knees when the head and neck are extended. The reflex disappears when neurologic and muscular development allows independent limb movement for actual crawling. It is also called the crawling reflex.
This reflex is noticeable in a child just prior to the creeping phase of development. Every time the child raises his head there is a tendency to move the bottom back onto the ankles, and each time the child bends his head the arms tend to bend, and the upper body goes towards the floor. While this reflex is present the baby will not be able to creep forward in a proper synchronized movement. He can creep backwards or shuffle along on his bottom.
The presence of the ATNR, as well as other primitive reflexes, such as the tonic labyrinthine (TLR), beyond the first months of life may indicate that the child has developmental delays, at which point the reflex is atypical or abnormal. For example, in children with cerebral palsy the reflexes may persist and even be more pronounced. As abnormal reflexes, both the ATNR and the TLR can cause problems for the growing child. The ATNR and TLR both hinder functional activities such as rolling, bringing the hands together, or even bringing the hands to the mouth.
Over time, both the ATNR and TLR can cause serious damage to the growing child’s joints and bones. The ATNR can cause the spine to curve (scoliosis). Both the ATNR and TLR can cause the head of the thighbone to partially slip out (subluxation) or completely move out of the hip socket (dislocation). When abnormal reflexes persist in a child, early intervention involving extensive physical therapy can be beneficial.
+ 10. What is baby massage?
Baby massage is gentle, rhythmic stroking of your baby’s body with your hands. As part of your massage routine, you can also gently manipulate your baby’s ankles, wrists and fingers.
The soothing strokes of your hands stimulate the production of the hormone oxytocin in you and your baby. Oxytocin is the hormone that gives you that warm, loving feeling when you hold your baby close or breastfeed him.
Massage is a lovely way to express your love and care for your baby. It can soothe your baby and help him to sleep.
+ 11. What are the benefits of baby massage?
There are lots of ways baby massage can benefit you and your baby. Massage is excellent for premature babies, helping them to grow and thrive, but massage is also good for full term babies. In fact, all small children can benefit from a massage.
Massage helps your baby to:
• strengthen his attachment to you
• stay relaxed and not get upset
• cry less
• sleep better
One study showed that massage may reduce the number of illnesses in your baby. More studies need to be done to confirm this.
Have you heard of the theories that touch and skin-to-skin contact helps to stimulate your baby’s brain development?
Giving your baby a massage lifts your mood and helps you feel empowered as a parent. The time you set aside for a massage can be your special time together.
As you massage your baby, it is natural to chat to him and make eye contact. This is one reason why massage can help mothers with postnatal depression.
Baby massage is beneficial for the father too. Some dads miss out on a lot of the hands-on care of their babies, especially if they are at work and their baby is breastfed. A regular massage in their presence can become a routine, perhaps at bedtime. It helps to bring them closer.
+ 12. When is the best time to massage my baby?
Try to pick a time when your baby is between feeds. Then he won’t be too hungry or too full. It’s also best not to start before his nap. A good time to massage your baby is when he is awake, but settled.
If your baby is sleeping and feeding often you may wonder when this golden time for massage is going to come around! You’ll get to know when your baby is most content to have a massage. You may like to make it part of your baby’s bedtime routine, perhaps after a bath and before a bedtime feed.
A massage before bedtime will help your baby to wind down after the stimulations of the day and become calm, ready for sleep.
+ 13. What do I need before I start to massage my baby?
Make sure the room is warm and there are no draughts. Then lay your baby down on a towel or folded sheet, perhaps with a changing mat underneath. You may prefer to keep your baby’s vest on if it is cool. Or let him enjoy being completely naked for a change.
As this is a special time for you and your baby, make sure there aren’t any distractions in the room. If you have a pet, put it in another room, and turn off your mobile phone. You may even like to play relaxing music, turned low enough so that your baby can hear you talk to him.
Have everything handy, including:
• massage oil
• towels to mop up any accidents
• clothes to dress your baby afterwards
• your usual nappy changing kit
Using oil or cream will make it easier for your hands to glide over your baby’s skin and may be more relaxing for your baby. It’s up to you whether you use a baby moisturizer or vegetable oil or baby mineral oil for massage.
Whichever oil or cream you use, it’s best to dab a little on your baby’s skin first, in case he has a reaction.
There are some oils or creams that are definitely best not to use, because there’s a chance they’ll irritate your baby’s skin. These are:
• Mustard oil, because the way it’s processed may mean it is contaminated with other seeds.
• Peanut oil, because, unless it’s refined, the proteins it contains may trigger an allergic reaction on your baby’s skin. It’s hard to find pure, refined peanut oil.
• Aqueous cream, because it contains detergents that may irritate your baby’s skin.
If your baby has eczema; you can use his prescribed cream during the massage.
+ 14. How should I massage my baby?
You may like to follow a routine, perhaps to massage your baby’s legs before his arms, hands and body. Your baby will appreciate a routine, too. He’ll find it comforting to know what’s coming next. The first few times you may only want to do your baby’s legs until he is used to the sensation.
To learn an easy baby massage, follow this routine:
• Warm a tiny squirt of oil or cream in your hands by rubbing it between your palms.
• Gently rub it into your baby’s skin, starting with his legs. It’s a good place to start, because your baby is used to having his legs touched during nappy changes.
• Work your way up his legs, lightly squeezing his calves and thighs.
• For your baby’s chest and tummy, gently place both hands flat against the centre of his body. Spread your hands to the sides, as if flattening the pages of a book.
• With your hands still flat, use your fingertips to stroke outward in small circles.
• Keep going for as long as your baby enjoys it.
Reading your baby’s cues is the most important aspect of massage. Your baby will tell you when the massage needs to end and which strokes he likes or dislikes. If your baby starts to cry during the massage, he is telling you that he has had enough.
How to Massage a Baby
To massage your baby enhances the emotional bond with your child and can calm him, improve sleep patterns and help digestion.
Additionally, research showed that massage helps premature babies improve their growth and development. A study on premature babies who were massaged three times daily for ten days, showed that:
1 They gained almost 50 percent more weight
2 They were more active and alert
3 They were able to leave the hospital six days earlier than other premature babies.
• Timing: Choose a point when you’re relaxed and unhurried and won’t be interrupted. Don’t plan to massage your baby when he has a full stomach or hungry.
• Position/Setting: Make sure you’re comfortable. Sit on the floor or on the bed, or put your baby on your lap. In a warm room, lay your baby on his back on a soft towel. Massage the front first, then the back. The room should be warm. Talk to him and play soothing music in the background.
• Massage Oils: Use a ‘cold pressed’ natural oil such as olive or almond oil with a few drops of Roman Chamomile essential oil. Don’t use oil on the head or face. Warm a few drops of the prepared oil in your hands. Newborn babies might only enjoy 2 to 5 minutes, while a child over 2 months will love a longer massage.
Rubbing Baby the Right Way
1. Begin by making tiny circles on the baby’s head. Then smooth the baby’s forehead with both hands at the center, gently press outward as if stroking the pages of a book. Make small circles around the baby’s jaw. Massage around his mouth can comfort him during teething.
2. Warming the oil in your hands, stroke the baby’s chest (like an open book again).
3. Roll each arm between your hands; open and massage each finger of each hand.
4. Massage the stomach, one hand following the other, from the baby’s right side to the left.
5. Roll each leg between your 2 hands; massage each foot.
6. Stroke his back, first back and forth across, then in long, sweeping lines from shoulders to feet. Always keep one hand on the baby. End with a kiss.
How to Soothe Stomach Distress
• Gently stroke baby’s stomach from top to bottom using the outer edges of first one hand, then the other, in a motion like a waterwheel.
• Push his knees onto his tummy, and hold for a count of ten.
• Massage the tummy with one hand following the other, in clockwise circles.
• Walk your fingers across your baby’s tummy from the right to the left, then down towards his left hip (to move gas towards the rectum). Repeat as needed.
+ 15. What are the Benefits of Baby Massage?
1 Helps relieve discomfort from gas, colic, and constipation
2 Improves blood circulation
3 Aids digestion
4 Enhances development of the nervous system
5 Stimulates neurological development
6 Increases alertness/heightened awareness
7 Reduces stress hormones
8 Improves immune function
9 Releases oxytocin, the nurturing hormone
Relaxes & Soothes
Massage helps and improves:
Nurturing Touch is a Natural Rewarding way to relieve stress for you and your baby.
• Deepens Bonding
• Essential one-on-one time that will enhance your intimacy, understanding and ability to nurture.
• Improves Communication
• Increases your confidence and sensitivity to your baby’s cues.
• Contributes to Development
• Stimulates growth and healthy development of baby’s body, mind and spirit.
• Enhances your ability to understand baby’s special needs.
• Helps Baby Sleep Better!
+ 16. What are Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development in Children?
• Sensory Motor Stage (Birth—2yrs)
• Pre-operational Stage (2—7yrs)
• Concrete Operational Stage (7—11yrs)
• Formal Operations Stage (11—16yrs)
+ 17. What do Cognitive styles describe?
Cognitive style or “thinking style” is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information. Cognitive style differs from cognitive ability (or level), the latter being measured by aptitude tests or so-called intelligence tests. Controversy exists over the exact meaning of the term cognitive style and also as to whether it is a single or multiple dimension of human personality. However, it remains a key concept in the areas of education and management.
Cognitive styles describe how the individual acquires knowledge (cognition) and processes information (conceptualization). Cognitive styles are related to mental behaviors which individuals apply habitually when they are solving problems. In general, they affect the way in which information is obtained, sorted and utilized. Cognitive style is usually described as a stable and persistent personality dimension which influences attitudes, values and social interaction. It is a characteristic of cognitive processing which is particular to a certain individual or class of individuals.
Before the 1970s, individual differences were synonymous with differences in ability, at least in the field of learning theory. Nevertheless, many psychologists in the 1950s and 1960s became increasingly concerned about the narrowness of abilities measured by standard intelligence tests.
Emphasis on abstract logical reasoning seemed to restrict intelligence to convergent thinking towards pre-determined answers, but excluding the type of “divergent thinking” which leads to imaginative or creative innovation.
Guilford (1965) introduced a model of the structure of the intellect which differentiated between a number of cognitive operations, including convergent and divergent thinking. Divergent thought soon became equated with creativity, but although his concepts of fluency, flexibility, and originality are still widely used, the value of his contributions to the understanding of creative thinking is now questionable.
+ 18. What is Learning Styles Theory?
Learning Style theorists believe there are several different types of intelligences or abilities. Under these theories, they believe every person has strengths and weaknesses in one of 9 different skill areas. Learning styles theory is sometimes referred to as multiple intelligences theory.
+ 19. How is Multiple Intelligences Theory Different from Traditional Views of Intelligence?
Early psychological theories described intelligence as a hereditary ability that remained mostly fixed throughout life. It enabled us to reason and solve problems. They believed this ability to be the single important factor affecting human life. This general intelligence concept was the forerunner of today’s intelligence quotient. The theory of multiple intelligences, by contrast, suggests there are different types of human intelligence that impact our overall functioning in life.
+ 20. What are the Multiple Intelligences?
Multiple intelligences theory is based on the work of Harvard professor, Howard Gardner. Through his research, Gardner theorized that intelligence is more complex than the traditional concept of general intelligence, which he viewed as incomplete. He identified 8 areas of intelligence that each person has. Gardner further maintains that these abilities can be nurtured and developed more fully. Failing to nurture them, would mean failure of development. It is also possible that these faculties could weaken over time. This revolutionary idea of changeable intelligence had its impact on teaching, and evolves continually.
+ 21. Refer to Alfred Binet and the First IQ Test
During the early 1900s, the French government asked psychologist Alfred Binet to help decide which students were most likely to experience difficulty in schools. The government had passed laws requiring that all French children attend school, so it was important to find a way to identify children who would need specialized assistance.
Faced with this task, Binet and his colleague, Theodore Simon, began with the development of a number of questions that focused on things that had not been taught in school, i.e. attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. Binet used these questions to determine which ones served as the best predictors of school success.
He quickly realized that some children were able to answer more advanced questions than older children; other children of the same age were only able to answer questions that younger children could answer. Based on this observation, Binet suggested the concept of a mental age, or a measure of intelligence based on the average abilities of children of certain age groups.
This first intelligence test, referred to today as the Binet-Simon Scale, became the basis for the intelligence tests still in use today. However, Binet himself did not believe that his psychometric instruments could be used to measure a single, permanent and inborn level of intelligence (Kamin, 1995).
Binet stressed the limitations of the test, suggesting that intelligence is far too broad a concept to quantify with a single number. Instead, he insisted that intelligence is influenced by a number of factors, changes over time and can only be compared among children with similar backgrounds (Siegler, 1992).
+ 22. Refer to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
After the development of the Binet-Simon Scale, the test was brought to the United States where it generated considerable interest. Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman took the Binet’s original test and standardized it using a sample of American participants. This adapted test, first published in 1916, was called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, and soon became the standard intelligence test used in the U.S.
The Stanford-Binet intelligence test used a single number, known as the intelligence quotient (or IQ), to represent an individual’s score in the test. This score was calculated by dividing the test taker’s mental age by his chronological age, and then multiplying this number by 100, i.e. a child with a mental age of 12 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 120 (12 /10 x 100).
The Stanford-Binet remains a popular assessment tool today, despite going through a number of revisions over the years since its inception.
+ 23. Refer to the Wechsler Intelligence Scales
The next development in the history of intelligence testing was the creation of a new measurement instrument by American psychologist David Wechsler. Much like Binet, Wechsler believed that intelligence involved different mental abilities, describing intelligence as, “the global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” (1939). Dissatisfied with the limitations of the Stanford-Binet, he published his new intelligence test known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) in 1955.
Wechsler also developed 2 different tests specifically for use with children:
1 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
2 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
The adult version of the test has been revised since its original publication and is now known as the WAIS-IV.
The WAIS-IV contains ten sub-tests with five supplemental tests. The test provides scores in four major areas of intelligence:
1 Verbal Comprehension Index
2 Perceptual Reasoning Index
3 Working Memory Index
4 Processing Speed Index
The test also provides two broad scores that can be used as a summary of overall intelligence:
1 Full Scale IQ score combines performance on all four index scores
2 General Ability Index is based on six sub-test scores
Subtest scores on the WAIS-IV can be useful to identify learning disabilities. A low score in some areas, combined with a high score in other areas, may indicate that the individual has a specific learning difficulty (Kaufman, 1990).
Rather than score the test based on chronological age and mental age, as was the case with the original Stanford-Binet, the WAIS is scored by comparing the test taker’s score to the scores of others in the same age group. The average score is fixed at 100, with two-thirds of scores lying in the normal range between 85 and 115. This scoring method has become the standard technique in intelligence testing and is also used in the modern revision of the Stanford-Binet test.
+ 24. What is "Multiple intelligences theory"?
In his theory of multiple intelligences, scientist Howard Gardner distinguishes 9 types:
1 Linguistic intelligence: the ability to read, write, listen and speak
2 Spatial intelligence: the ability to orient yourself in space
3 Logic-mathematical intelligence: the ability to calculate, solve logical puzzles, reason and think scientifically
4 Musical intelligence: the ability to sing, play a musical instrument, analyze music and compose music
5 Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: the ability to move your body in a co-ordinated way, i.e. in dance, sports or surgery
6 Interpersonal intelligence: the ability to understand and interpret verbal and non-verbal behavior of others
7 Intrapersonal intelligence: the ability to reflect on your own actions and to understand them
8 Naturalist intelligence: the ability to recognize and categorize objects in the natural world
9 Existential intelligence: the ability to determine your own position with regards to existential features of the human existence, such as death and the meaning of life
+ 26. Explain "Overlap between multiple intelligences and IQ"
Only the first 3 intelligence types in Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences overlap with what is normally defined as intelligence and what is measured in an IQ test. Thinking in terms of multiple intelligences is at odds with the idea of the G factor, which assumes that there is only one general underlying factor.
1 Linguistic intelligence: the ability to read, write, listen and speak
2 Spatial intelligence: the ability to orient yourself in space
3 Logic-mathematical intelligence: the ability to calculate, solve logical puzzles, reason and think scientifically
+ 27. What Is General Intelligence?
Is intelligence a singular factor or does it have several facets? In scientific circles the discussion is lively and ongoing.
Not everybody agrees. Some claim that there are multiple intelligence factors, which are (more or less) independent. According to these scientists, a person could for example be very good at math, but very bad in memory related tasks.
General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to the existence of a general intelligence that influences the measurement of mental ability.The existence of general intelligence was first described by Charles Spearman in 1904. According to Spearman, this g factor was responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests.
Those who hold this view believe that intelligence can be measured and expressed by a single number, such as an IQ score. The idea is that this underlying general intelligence influences performance on all cognitive tasks.
G Factor or General Intelligence Factor
Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
An important distinction between intelligence factors is that of ‘fluid intelligence’ and ‘crystallized intelligence’. Fluid intelligence refers to the degree of flexibility in thinking and the ability to reason abstractly. Crystallized intelligence refers to the degree in which an accumulation of knowledge and skills has taken place in the course of life.
Fluid intelligence is influenced by environment and learning experiences to a much larger degree than crystallized intelligence. The first form of intelligence is to a larger degree a reflection of the genetic component of intelligence.
+ 28. What is Spearman’s Two Factor Theory?
Spearman studied philosophy, but later lost interest in the field in favor of a career in the British army.
He formed a theory based on his study that there were two factors of measure for intelligence. The first part of the two factor theory, is general intelligence factor, labeled as “g”. Spearman’s theory showed that all aspects of intelligence correlated with each other and is controlled by “g”. General intelligence factor overlapped all other more specific intelligence factors.
The second part of the two factor theory was the specific intelligence factor, labeled as “s”. Specific intelligence factors are specific to a single activity. These areas did not necessarily overlap or share much correlation with each other. The “s” factors were overlapped and joined together by the primary “g” factor.
A “g” factor had a correlation between at least two mental functions, while an “s” factor mostly corresponded to only a single mental function.
“S” factors are specialized and may not be a perfect measure of intelligence level. Instead the two factor theory claims that “g” factors are the way to test the intelligence level of an individual. It rules out specialization of the individual towards a specific mental function. Instead, it attempts to measure the entire mental capacity.
“S” factors, on the other hand, only show how intelligent the individual is in a specific mental function. A person could potentially be intelligent in one mental functional area, but score low in a different area. By judging “g” factors, the test would instead overlap multiple mental functional areas; therefore, come up with a generalized measure of the whole mind.
+ 29. What is Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence?
Fluid Intelligence versus Crystallized Intelligence
While many people claim that their intelligence seems to decline as they age, research suggests that while fluid intelligence begins to decrease after adolescence, crystallized intelligence continues to increase throughout adulthood.
What are fluid and crystallized intelligence? Psychologist Raymond Cattrell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and further developed the theory with John Horn. The Cattrell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence.
What is Fluid Intelligence?
Cattrell defined fluid intelligence as “ . . . the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.”
Fluid intelligence involves being able to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem-solving strategies.
What Is Crystallized Intelligence?
Crystallized intelligence involves knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences. Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. This type of intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences. As we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding, crystallized intelligence becomes stronger.
Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence
According to Knox (1977), “ . . . they constitute the global capacity to learn reason and solve problems that most people refer to as intelligence. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are complementary in that some learning tasks can be mastered mainly by exercising either fluid or crystallized intelligence.”
Both types of intelligence are equally important in everyday life, i.e. when taking a psychology exam, you might need to rely on fluid intelligence to come up with a strategy to solve a statistical problem, while you also have to employ crystallized intelligence to recall the exact formulas to use.
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Throughout Life
Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence.
Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence, and progressively declines around the age of 30 or 40. Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood.
+ 30. Talk about the Triarchic theory of intelligence and The Triarchic Model
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Many descriptions of intelligence focus on mental abilities such as vocabulary, comprehension, memory and problem-solving that can be measured through intelligence tests. This reflects the tendency of psychologists to develop their understanding of intelligence by observing behavior believed to be associated with intelligence.
Sternberg believes that this focus on specific types of measurable mental abilities is too narrow. He believes that studying intelligence in this way leads to an understanding of only one part of intelligence and that this part is only seen in people who are “school smart” or “book smart”.
There are, for example, many individuals who score poorly on intelligence tests, but are creative or are “street smart,” and therefore have a good ability to adapt and shape their environment. According to Sternberg (2003), giftedness should be examined in a broader way, incorporating other parts of intelligence.
The Triarchic Model
Robert Sternberg (2003) categorizes intelligence into 3 parts, which are central in his theory, the triarchic theory of intelligence:
• Analytical intelligence, the ability to complete academic, problem-solving tasks, such as those used in traditional intelligence tests. These types of tasks usually present well-defined problems that have only a single correct answer.
• Creative or synthetic intelligence, the ability to successfully deal with new and unusual situations by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Individuals high in creative intelligence may give ‘wrong’ answers, because they see things from a different perspective.
• Practical intelligence, the ability to adapt to everyday life by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Practical intelligence enables an individual to understand what needs to be done in a specific setting and then do it.
Sternberg (2003) discusses experience and its role in intelligence. Creative or synthetic intelligence helps individuals transfer information from one problem to another. Sternberg calls the application of ideas from one problem to a new type of problem relative novelty. In contrast to the skills of relative novelty, there is relative familiarity, which enables an individual to become so familiar with a process that it becomes automatized. This can free up brain resources to cope with new ideas.
Context, or how one adapts, selects and shapes his environment, is another area that is not represented by traditional measures of giftedness. Intelligent people are good at picking up tacit information and utilizing that information. They tend to shape their environment around them. (Sternberg, 2003)
Sternberg (2003) developed a testing instrument to identify people who are gifted in ways that other tests don’t dentify. The Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test not only measures traditional intelligence Abilities, but analytic, synthetic, automatization and practical abilities too. There are four ways in which this test is different from conventional intelligence tests.
• This test is broader, measuring synthetic and practical skills in addition to analytic skills. The test provides scores on analytic, synthetic, automatization, and practical abilities, as well as verbal, quantitative, and figural processing abilities.
• The test measures the ability to understand unknown words in context rather than vocabulary skills, which are dependent on an individual’s background.
• The automatization sub-test is the only part of the test that measures the mental speed.
• The test is based on a theory of intelligence.
+ 31. Discuss the Theory in cognitive styles
Sternberg proposed a theory of cognitive styles in 1997.
Sternberg’s basic idea is that the forms of government we have in the world are external reflections of the way different people view and act in the world, that is, different ways of organizing and thinking. Cognitive styles should not be confused with abilities; they are the way we prefer to use these abilities. Indeed a good fit between a person’s preferred cognitive profile and his abilities can create a powerful synergy that outweighs the sum of its parts.
· The three main branches of government are:
People also need to perform these functions in their own thinking and working.
Executive —executive people are rule followers; they are given a pre-determined structure in which to work.
Legislative —legislative people like to build new structures, creating their own rules along the way.
Judicial —judicial people like to evaluate rules and procedures, to analyze a given structure.
· The four forms of mental self-government are:
Hierarchical —the hierarchic style holds multiple goals simultaneously and prioritizes them.
Monarchic —the monarchic style, in comparison, focuses on a single activity until completion.
Oligarchic —the oligarchic style is similar to the hierarchic style, but differs in difficulty prioritizing.
Anarchic —the anarchic style resists conformity to “systems, rules, or particular approaches to problems.”
· The two levels of mental self-government are:
Local —the local style focuses on more specific and concrete problems; in extreme cases they “can’t see the forest for the trees”.
Global —the global style, in comparison, focuses on more abstract and global problems, in extreme cases they “can’t see the trees for the forest”.
· The two scopes of mental self-government are:
Internal —the internal style focuses inwards and prefers to work independently.
External —the external style focuses outwards and prefers to work in collaboration.
· The two ways of learning of mental self-government are:
Liberal — these styles have nothing to do with politics. The liberal individual likes change, to go beyond exciting rules and procedures.
Conservative —the conservative individual dislikes change and ambiguity, he is the happiest in a familiar and predictable environment.
We all have different profiles of thinking styles which can change over situations and time of life. Moreover a person can, and often does, have a secondary preferred thinking style.
+ 32. When is a child ready to learn?
Once a mother asked a famous child-developmentalist at what age she should begin to train her child.
He asked, ‘When will your child be born?’
‘Oh, he is five years old now,’ said the mother.
‘Madam, run home quickly. You have wasted the best five years of his life,’ said the expert.
Beyond two years reading gets harder every year. If your child is five, it will be easier for him than when he is six. At four it is still easier, and at three it is even easier. Two years of age is the best time to begin, if you want to spend the least amount of time and energy teaching your child to read. (If you are willing, you can begin at eighteen months, or if you are clever, as early as ten months.)
There are two vital points involved in teaching your child:
• Your attitude and approach.
• The size and orderliness of the reading matter.
The parent must remember two things:
• Learning is more fun than anything else.
• Sessions should always end before the child wants to stop.
+ 33. What is Sensory Integration?
Sensory Integration refers to the brain’s ability to absorb process and organize the input it receives from our senses. The brain integrates the input together to make sense of the people and physical objects around us and how our body relates to our environment.
One needs to be able to appropriately input and interpret specific information from each sensory system for body organization and regulation, motor planning, academic learning and social/emotional interactions.
We typically think of five senses; vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. These senses give us information about the world around us, and how we interact with our environment.
There are also internal senses which give us feedback about our bodies: Proprioception—sensory receptors are located in the joints and tell us about the position of different parts of our body.
Vestibular—sensory receptors are located in the inner ear and tell us about how are bodies are moving in space and in relation to gravity.
+ 34. What Is Sensory Adaptation?
Sensory adaptation is a phenomenon in which sensory neurons change their level of sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time. This adaptation allows a person to adapt to his environment while balancing the need to receive new sensory input. Neurons involved with smell, hearing, taste, touch, and sight can all exhibit sensory adaptation. The only neurons which do not change their level of sensitivity to a constant stimulus are nociceptors, the neurons involved in the sensation of pain. This is why the smell of a severe burn appears to dissipate quickly, while the pain lingers.
One of the best ways to illustrate sensory adaptation is with examples. Many people are familiar with the adaptation of the eye to its environment. When someone emerges from a dark movie theatre on a matinee day, the sunlight outside seems painfully bright. Within minutes, the eyes have adapted, and the light level feels comfortable and normal. The level of light has not changed. The receptors in the eye have adjusted their sensitivity, recognizing that they need to be less sensitive to light to avoid damage to the retina. Someone walking into a movie theatre will undergo the opposite; the eyes increase sensitivity to light to pick up all available visual information.
Sensory adaptation can also be experienced by touch, i.e. hot water seems temperate after a few minutes. Background noises are an excellent example of sensory adaptation in the case of hearing; these noises literally fade into the background, because the ear is used to the constant stimulus. The taste buds can also develop reduced sensitivity to intense stimuli, as people notice that strong flavors recede when they proceed eating a dish.
Some people experience variances in sensory processing and perception which can result in a lack of sensory adaptation, i.e. these individuals might experience a constant loud noise louder than others; this result in high levels of stress. Likewise, they may have difficulty adapting to changes in the light level, and sometimes this causes symptoms such as headaches and eye strain.
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