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The Millennium Age Therapy
Questions & Answers
+ 1. Does taking supplements of Vitamin B improve your health?
There is no evidence that taking very high amounts of B vitamins improves health. Improvements in cognitive functions from the B vitamins are particularly noticeable in middle age individuals and the elderly. High dosages of vitamin B6 can cause nerve damage.
+ 2. B Vitamin coenzyme is an activated and more powerful form of Vitamin B complex. How should you take Vitamin B supplements?
Most of the B complex products contain too high doses of the B vitamins. The effects of the B vitamins are subtle, especially in the young who normally have adequate dietary intake of these nutrients. Two to five times the Recommended Daily Allowance is sufficient for most purposes.
+ 3. Since B vitamins and their coenzymes play important metabolic roles in numerous biochemical reactions throughout the body, they can influence just about every aspect of brain and physical health. As a rule, individuals who take B vitamins notice improvements in . . . . Name 7 benefits.
Alertness, Concentration and focus, Mood and energy, Learning and memory, Visual clarity, Verbal fluency and Speed of thinking.
+ 4. The increased consumption of refined foods depletes the amounts of B vitamins present in our diet. B vitamins help in energy production and deficiencies lead to fatigue and poor mental functioning. What has been offered as an answer to this dilemma? Refer to a study that was done at the University College of Swansea in 1995.
B vitamins are regularly added to food products, such as cereals. The question of whether B vitamin supplementation is necessary in healthy individuals who have a normal diet has been debated ever since vitamins were discovered.
The results of several studies have influenced me in favor of low dose supplementation. You will see cognitive improvement from taking B vitamins. Back in 1995, Dr. D. Benton and colleagues, from the University College Swansea, in Great Britain, gave ten times the recommended daily allowance of nine vitamins (mostly the B vitamins) to healthy college students. The study lasted for one year. The students reported improvement in mood and feeling more agreeable. There was also an improvement in cognitive functioning, especially with regard to concentration. People consistently report that B vitamin supplementation improves their energy, concentration and mood while helping them handle everyday stress better.
+ 5. For otherwise healthy individuals, supplementation with one to three times the recommended daily allowance of the B vitamins is suggested. For which 3 disorders are higher dosages required?
Higher dosages may be required for individuals with medical, psychiatric or neurological disorders.
+ 6. What are anti-oxidants?
Anti-oxidants are substances that are capable of reversing the damaging effects of toxins and which help the body detoxify itself. Toxins are poisons. To detoxify is to get rid of toxins or poisons.
+ 7. How do you improve detoxification? Name 4 things that come to mind.
Baths, Dry Skin Brushing, Improve Digestion and Coffee Enemas.
+ 8. What does aerobic mean and when is an exercise aerobic?
Aerobic means with oxygen. An activity is aerobic if it places added demands on your muscles, lungs and heart increasing your breathing and heart rate and requiring increased transport of oxygen from your lungs to your circulatory system and muscles. Aerobic exercise provides benefits for all people, including people with diabetes.
+ 9. Diabetes can cause serious problems like heart attacks and kidney problems. Every day children and adolescents die because of diabetes. Referring to their weight, what do you suggest?
Weight loss will be useful for those suffering from diabetes. Eating sensibly and staying active is the way to successful weight loss, but putting these to practice can be difficult.
+ 10. What is the etymology of Unani?
The word Unani or Yunani has its origins in the Greek word which means Ioníe or Ionía, a place name given to a Greek populated coastal region of Anatolia. It literally means nature.
+ 11. According to WHO, and referring to Unani drugs, why are safety activities done?
“Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of recipient.” These drugs may be any substance or product including herbs, minerals, etc. for animals and human beings and can even be that prescribed by practitioners of Unani or ayurvedic system of medicine. In recent days, awareness has been created related to safety and adverse drug reaction monitoring of herbal drugs including Unani drugs.
+ 12. What does the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) do?
In India, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971 under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine including, Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha.
+ 13. What does the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library do?
In 2001 the Government of India set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library to fight biopiracy and unethical patents as repository of 223,000 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha.
+ 14. What does the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) do?
The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) was established in 1979, also under AYUSH, aids and co-ordinates scientific research in Unani System of Medicine through a network of 22 nationwide research Institutes and Units, including two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine, at Hyderabad and Lucknow, eight Regional Research Institutes at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, Aligarh, Mumbai, Srinagar, Kolkata and New Delhi, six Clinical Research Units at Allahabad, Bangalore, Karimganj, Meerut, Bhopal and Burhanpur, four Drug Standardisation Research Units at New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Lucknow, a Chemical Research Unit at Aligarh, a Literary Research Institute at New Delhi.
+ 15. What does the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha do?
The Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), established in 1978, by Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, co-ordinates and promotes research in the fields of Ayurveda and Siddha medicine.
+ 16. What is the etymology of Siddha?
The Siddha Medicine is one of the oldest medical systems known to mankind. Contemporary Tamizh literature mentions the origin of the medical system from Southern India in the state Tamizh Nadu, as part of the trio Indian medicines—ayurveda, siddha and unani. Reported to have surfaced more than 2500 years ago, the Siddha system of medicine is considered one of the most antiquated traditional medical systems.
+ 17. In a short paragraph, speak about World Siddha Day
After former Chief Minister Karunanidhi’s Announcement of Tamil New Year’s Day as World Siddha Day, the First World Siddha Day was celebrated 14 April 2009, addressed by his Excellency Shri Surjit Singh Barnala, Governor of Tamil Nadu. The 2nd World Siddha Day was celebrated 14 April 2010 at Image Auditorium, Adyar, Chennai. More than 2000 students, post graduates, practitioners and traditional vaidyas participated in the celebration. The 3rd World Siddha day was celebrated 14th and 15th April 2011 at Trivandrum, Kerala—where Siddha Doctors met.
+ 18. The lymphatic system is co-operative. Name 3 important functions of the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system aids the immune system in removing and destroying waste, debris, dead blood cells, pathogens, toxins, and cancer cells.
The lymphatic system absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system and delivers these nutrients to the cells of the body where they are used by the cells.
The lymphatic system also removes excess fluid, and waste products from the interstitial spaces between the cells.
+ 19. How is lymph formed? Write a 5 point paragraph about the transformation and a 10 point paragraph to describe the lymph.
The Transformation: Arterial blood carries oxygen, nutrients and hormones to the cells. To reach these cells it leaves the small arteries and flows into tissues. The fluid is now interstitial fluid and delivers nourshing products to the cells. Then it leaves the cell and removes waste products. After this task is complete, 90 percent of this fluid returns to the circulatory system as venous blood.
What is Lymph? The remaining 10 percent of the fluid that stays behind in the tissues is a yellowish, clear fluid known as lymph. Unlike blood, which flows throughout the body in a continued loop, lymph flows in one direction within its own system. This flow is upward toward the neck. Here, it flows into the venous blood stream through the subclavian veins on either side of the neck near the collarbones. After plasma has delivered its nutrients and removed debris, it leaves the cells. 90 percent of the fluid returns to the venous circulation through the venules and continues as venous blood. The remaining 10 percent of the fluid becomes lymph which is a watery fluid that contains waste products. This waste is protein-rich due to the undigested proteins that were removed from the cells.
+ 20. What do you know about the origin and movement of lymph? Write a 6 point paragraph about the lymphatic circulation and a 12 point paragraph about the origin of lymph.
The lymph is moved through the body in its own vessels making a one-way journey from the interstitial spaces to the subclavian veins at the base of the neck.
Since the lymphatic system does not have a heart to pump it, its upward movement depends on the motions of the muscle and joint pumps.
As it moves upward toward the neck the lymph passes through lymph nodes which filter it to remove debris and pathogens.
The cleansed lymph continues to travel in only one direction, which is upward toward the neck.
At the base of the neck, the cleansed lymph flows into the subclavian veins on either side of the neck.
The Origin of Lymph
Lymph originates as plasma (the fluid portion of blood). The arterial blood, which flows out of the heart, slows as it moves through a capillary bed. This slowing allows some plasma to leave the arterioles (small arteries) and flow into the tissues where it becomes tissue fluid.
Also known as extracellular fluid, this is fluid that flows between the cells but is not into the cells. This fluid delivers nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to the cells.
As this fluid leaves the cells, it takes with it cellular waste products and protein cells.
Approximately 90 percent of this tissue fluid flows into the small veins. Here it enters the venous circulation as plasma and continues in the circulatory system.
The remaining 10 percent of the fluid that is left behind is known as lymph.
+ 21. Do you know the difference between lymphatic capillaries and vessels? Write a 4 point paragraph about the lymphatic capillaries and a 6 point paragraph about the lymphatic vessels.
In order to leave the tissues, the lymph must enter the lymphatic system through specialized lymphatic capillaries. Approximately 70 percent of these are superficial capillaries located near, or just under, the skin. The remaining 30 percent, which are known as deep lymphatic capillaries, surround most of the body’s organs.
Lymphatic capillaries begin as blind-ended tubes that are only a single cell in thickness. These cells are arranged in a slightly overlapping pattern, much like the shingles on a roof. Each of these individual cells is fastened to nearby tissues by an anchoring filament.
The lymphatic capillaries gradually join together to form a mesh-like network of tubes that are located deeper in the body.
As they become larger, and deeper, these structures become lymphatic vessels.
Deeper within the body the lymphatic vessels become progressively larger and are located near major blood veins.
Smooth muscles in the veins, the lymphatic vessels, also known as lymphangions, have one-way valves. Lymphatic vessels cause the angions to contract to aid the flow of lymph upwards towards the thoracic region.
+ 22. Now discuss the lymph nodes and the lymphatic drainage areas? Write a 12 point paragraph about the lymph nodes and a 4 point paragraph about the lymphatic drainage areas.
Lymph nodes kill pathogens and cancer cells. They also remove debris and excess fluid.
There are between 600 to 700 lymph nodes present in the average human body. It is the role of these nodes to filter the lymph before it can be returned to the circulatory system. Although these nodes can increase or decrease in size throughout life, any nodes that has been damaged or destroyed, do not regenerate.
Afferent lymphatic vessels carry unfiltered lymph into the node. Here waste products, and some of the fluid, are filtered out.
In another section of the node, lymphocytes, which are specialized white blood cells, kill any pathogens that may be present. This causes the swelling known as swollen glands.
Lymph nodes also trap and destroy cancer cells to slow the spread of the cancer until they are overwhelmed by it.
Efferent lymphatic vessels carry the filtered lymph out of the node so that it can continue its return to the circulatory system.
Lymphatic Drainage Areas
Lymphatic system drainage is organized into two separate and very unequal drainage areas. The right drainage area clears the right arm and chest. The left drainage area clears all the other areas of the body, including the legs, the lower trunk, upper left of the chest, and the left arm.
+ 23. Write a 20 point essay why the information on manual lymph drainage is so important?
Damaged lymph nodes disturb the flow. When lymphatic tissues or lymph nodes have been damaged, destroyed or removed, lymph cannot drain normally from the affected area. When this happens, excess lymph accumulates and results in the swelling characteristic of lymphedema.
Lymph drainage areas. The treatment of lymphedema is based on the natural structures and the flow of lymph. The affected drainage area determines the pattern of the manual lymph drainage (MLD) and for self-massage. Although lymph does not normally cross from one area to another, MLD stimulates the flow from one area to another. It also encourages the formation of new lymph drainage pathways.
MLD treatment and self-massage begin by stimulating the area near the terminus and the larger lymphatic vessels. This stimulates the lymph that is already in the system and frees space for the lymph to flow and enter the capillaries during the treatment.
MLD treatment is a gentle massage technique to stimulate the movement of the excess lymph in affected tissues. The rhythmic, light strokes of MLD provide just the right pressure to encourage this excess lymph to flow into the lymph capillaries.
The compression garments, aids, and/or bandages that are worn between treatments help control swelling by providing pressure that is needed to encourage the flow of lymph into the capillaries.
Exercise is important in the treatment of lymphedema, because the movement of the muscles stimulate the lymph to flow into the capillaries. Wearing a compression garment during exercise also provides resistance to further stimulate this flow.
Self-massage or simplified lymphatic drainage, as prescribed by your therapist, is another way in which lymph is encouraged to flow into the capillaries. Each self-massage session begins at the terminus with strokes to stimulate the flow of lymph that is already in the system. This is followed by specialized strokes that encourage the flow of lymph into the capillaries, and then upwards into the gastro-intestinal area, which is the main area of lymph drainage.
+ 24. When will your doctor send you for physical exercise or physiotherapy?
If you have a physical limitation, i.e. weakness, pain or fatigue, it is likely that you will be sent to improve your physical fitness and stamina. Patients with functional symptoms often have fatigue, weakness or pain, which is made worse by exercise. To overcome this, you will need to gradually increase your amount of activity.
+ 25. ‘Performance without Pain’ focuses on nutrient-dense nutrition that heals and prevents inflammation and builds optimal health. However, one has to focus on symmetry too. Case scenario: You have no injury and your diet is completely anti-inflammatory. You develop a pain in your left or right hip when walking. It might be caused by a muscular tightening, and not inflammation. You have no injury and your diet is completely anti-inflammatory. Over the course of a few years have you tried common treatments such as chiropractic, muscle activation, exercises like squatting and massage therapy? These approaches seem to help, but the pain keeps returning. Additionally, for years in a row, have you sprained muscles on only the one side of your body–your sacro-iliac joint, the last rib of your rib cage, your abdominal muscles, while playing the trumpet! If you continue playing your instrument and spraining the muscles of your abdominal wall, you can become seriously injured. This is not normal. Spraining muscles on only one side? Spraining abdominal muscles while playing a trumpet? What is wrong?
Find a trainer who does corrective exercise and works on symmetry. Most of the time, asymmetry is the problem. Make sure your trainer understands the extent of your issue. Find a superior occupational therapist who successfully treats high level musicians and who helps people with other complicated physical therapy issues.
The author of the book ‘Performance without Pain’ worked with a successful occupational therapist. Abstract from ‘Performance without Pain’:
‘Through working with my therapist, we concluded that my spine was twisting due to a change in the pelvic floor after childbirth. Thus I had developed a diagonal support in my body structure. The tell tale sign was that my left foot was turned out when I lay flat because my entire leg had turned out from a structural alteration after childbirth and carrying children in my right arm. Therefore my left hip hurt and eventually as my spine twisted more and more, my rib cage was asymmetrical and the ribs on the left side of my body stopped moving properly. When I exhaled, the right side of my ribs moved unequally to the left side and created a strain to the muscles on my right abdominal wall, eventually causing a muscle sprain. Additionally, as I twisted more, my left collar bone was pressing on the nerves in my left arm, making it feel weak.
She opened a textbook detailing this disorder which exhibited a red path outlining a strained muscle pattern starting from the left foot, running up the outside of the left leg and hip and crossing over to the right torso area. As you can imagine, finding the underlying cause to this issue was a huge relief! The treatment will take some time however. First, the muscles in my left leg had to be restructured to allow my foot to step straight forward while walking. Then the muscles in my left rib cage had to be activated. I then had to work on getting my left rib cage moving for every exhale equally with the right which initially caused me to twist back to the right as if undoing a knot! Lastly I have a whole series of exercises that will strengthen the correct structure and alignment of the pelvic wall’.
+ 26. Symmetry (from Greek symmetríc to “measure together”) generally conveys 2 primary meanings. Describe each.
The first is an imprecise sense of harmonious or pleasing proportionality and balance; such that it reflects beauty or perfection.
The second meaning is a precise and well-defined concept of balance or “patterned self-similarity” that can be demonstrated or proved according to the rules of a formal system: by geometry, through physics or otherwise.
Although the meanings are distinguishable in some contexts, both meanings of “symmetry” are related and discussed in parallel.
+ 27. What is reflection symmetry? Give as many other names as you can to describe reflection symmetry.
Reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, or bilateral symmetry is symmetry with respect to reflection. That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflection symmetry.
In two-dimensional there is a line of symmetry, in three-dimensional a plane of symmetry. An object or figure which is indistinguishable from its transformed image is a mirror symmetric.
+ 28. A glide reflection symmetry in a 3D plane? Explain.
A reflection in a line or plane combined with a translation along the line / in the plane, results in the same object. It implies translational symmetry with twice the translation vector. The symmetry group is isomorphic with Z.
+ 29. In what 2 everyday objects do you find helical symmetry? In a paragraph, talk about its axis.
Helical symmetry is the kind of symmetry seen in such everyday objects as springs and drill bits. It can be thought of as rotational symmetry with translation along the axis of rotation—the screw axis.
The concept of helical symmetry can be visualized as the tracing in three-dimensional space that results from rotating an object at an even angular speed while simultaneously moving at another even speed along its axis of rotation (translation). At any one point in time, these 2 motions combine to give a coiling angle that helps define the properties of the tracing. When the tracing object rotates quickly and translates slowly, the coiling angle will be close to 0 degrees. Conversely, if the rotation is slow and the translation is speedy, the coiling angle will approach 90 degrees.
+ 30. The 3 main classes of helical symmetry can be distinguished based on the interplay of the angle of coiling and translation along the axis. Name the 3 classes of helical symmetry.
Infinite, n-fold and non-repeating helical symmetry.
+ 31. Discuss in 3 paragraphs infinite helical symmetry.
If there are no distinguishing features along the length of a helix or helix-like object, the object will have infinite symmetry much like that of a circle, but with the additional requirement of translation along the long axis of the object to return it to its original appearance.
A helix-like object is one that has at every point the regular angle of coiling of a helix, but which can also have a cross section of indefinitely high complexity, provided only that precisely the same cross section exists (usually after a rotation) at every point along the length of the object. Simple examples include evenly coiled springs and drill bits.
Stated more precisely, an object has infinite helical symmetries if for any small rotation of the object around its central axis there exists a point nearby (the translation distance) on that axis at which the object will appear exactly as it did before. It is this infinite helical symmetry that gives rise to the illusion of movement along the length of a screw bit being rotated. It also provides the ability to move materials along their length, provided that they are combined with a force such as gravity or friction that allows the materials to resist simply rotating along with the drill.
+ 32. What is an n-fold helical symmetry?
If the requirement that every cross section of the helical object be identical is relaxed, additional lesser helical symmetries become possible.
+ 33. Distinguish the characteristics of a non-repeating helical symmetry.
This is the case in which the angle of rotation required to observe the symmetry is irrational. The angle of rotation never repeats exactly, no matter how many times the helix is rotated. Such symmetries are created by using a non-repeating point group in 2 dimensions.
+ 34. What is a non-isometric symmetry? Discuss in a paragraph.
A wider definition of geometric symmetry allows operations from a larger group than the Euclidean group of isometries. Examples of larger geometric symmetry groups are:
The group of similarity transformations; i.e., affine transformations represented by a matrix A that is a scalar times an orthogonal matrix. Thus homothetic is added, self-similarity is considered a symmetry.
The group of affine transformations represented by a matrix A with determinant 1 or -1; i.e., the transformations which preserve area.
The group of all bijective affine transformations. This adds, i.e. oblique reflection symmetry. The group of Möbius transformations which preserve cross-ratios. This adds, i.e. inversive reflections such as circle reflection on the plane.
+ 35. What is scale symmetry? Discuss in a paragraph.
Scale symmetry refers to the idea that if an object is expanded or reduced in size, the new object has the same properties as the original. Scale symmetry is notable for the fact that it does not exist for most physical systems, a point that was first discerned by Galileo. Simple examples of the lack of scale symmetry in the physical world include the difference in the strength and size of the legs of elephants versus mice, and the observation that if a candle made of soft wax was enlarged to the size of a tall tree, it would immediately collapse under its own weight.
+ 36. What is reflection symmetry? Explain referring to the plane of reflection. Give other names to reflection symmetry.
Reflection symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, or bilateral symmetry is symmetry with respect to reflection.
“T has a vertical symmetry axis” or “T has left-right symmetry”.
The triangles with this symmetry are isosceles, the quadrilaterals with this symmetry are the kites and the isosceles trapezoids.
For each line or plane of reflection, the symmetry group is isomorphic with Cs, one of the 3 types of order 2 (involutions), hence algebraically C2. The fundamental domain is a half-plane or half-space.
+ 37. Horizontal or vertical symmetry? Explain referring to reflection symmetry and give examples.
If the letter ‘T’ is reflected along a vertical axis, it appears the same. One can better use a formulation, e.g. “T has a vertical symmetry axis” (this may also be called a line of symmetry).
The triangles with this symmetry are isosceles. The quadrilaterals with this symmetry are the kites and the isosceles trapezoids.
In certain contexts there is rotational symmetry. Then mirror-image symmetry is equivalent with inversion symmetry; in such contexts in modern physics the term P-symmetry is used for both (P = parity).
For general types of reflection there are corresponding general types of reflection symmetry. Examples:
A non-isometric affine involution (an oblique reflection in a line, plane, etc.).
A circle inversion.
Mirrored symmetry is also found in the design of ancient structures, including Stonehenge.
+ 38. What is translational symmetry?
Translational symmetry leaves an object invariant under a discrete or continuous group of translations.
+ 39. The concept of symmetry is applied to the design of objects of all shapes and sizes. Give 5 examples of symmetry in arts and crafts.
Beadwork, furniture, sand paintings, knotwork and musical instruments.
+ 40. Discuss in 2 paragraphs symmetry in carpets, rugs and quilts.
Long traditions of the use of symmetry in carpet and rug patterns span a variety of cultures. American Navajo Indians used bold diagonals and rectangular motifs. Many Oriental rugs have intricate reflected centers and borders that translate a pattern. Not surprisingly, rectangular rugs typically use quadrilateral symmetry—that is, motifs that are reflected across both the horizontal and vertical axes.
As quilts are made from square blocks (usually 9, 16, or 25 pieces to a block) with each smaller piece usually consisting of fabric triangles, the craft lends itself to the application of symmetry.
+ 41. Discuss in 1 paragraph symmetry in social interactions.
People observe the symmetrical nature, often including asymmetrical balance, of social interactions in a variety of ways. These include assessments of empathy, apology, dialog, respect, justice, and revenge. Symmetrical interactions send the message “we are all the same” while asymmetrical interactions send the message “I am special—better than you.” Peer relationships are based on symmetry—power relationships are based on asymmetry.
+ 42. Symmetry in natural objects form an impressive visual result and play a role in history, religion and culture. Give 2 examples.
Crystals and seashells.
+ 43. In mathematics, what is a theorem?
A theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and previously accepted statements, such as axioms. The derivation of a theorem is often interpreted as a proof of the truth of the resulting expression, but different deductive systems can yield other interpretations, depending on the meanings of the derivation rules. The proof of a mathematical theorem is a logical argument demonstrating that the conclusions are a necessary consequence of the hypotheses, in the sense that if the hypotheses are true then the conclusions must also be true, without any further assumptions. The concept of a theorem is therefore fundamentally deductive, in contrast to the notion of a scientific theory, which is empirical.
+ 44. In mathematics, what is the difference between a theorem and a proof? Give an example of a theorem.
Although a theorem can be written in a symbolic form using, i.e. propositional calculus, theorems are expressed in a natural language such as English.
Proofs are expressed as logically organized, and clearly worded informal arguments, intended to convince readers of the truth of the statement of the theorem, beyond any doubt, and from which arguments, a formal symbolic proof can in principle be constructed.
Such arguments are easier to check than purely symbolic ones—mathematicians express a preference for a proof that not only demonstrates the validity of a theorem, but also explains why it is obviously true. In some cases, a picture alone may be sufficient to prove a theorem. Because theorems lie at the core of mathematics, they are also central to its aesthetics.
Theorems are often described as “trivial”, “difficult”, “deep”, or “beautiful”. These subjective judgments vary not only from person to person, but also with time: i.e. as a proof is simplified or better understood, a theorem that was once difficult may become trivial. On the other hand, a deep theorem might be simply stated, but its proof may involve surprising and subtle connections between disparate areas of mathematics.
Fermat’s Last Theorem is a particularly well-known example of such a theorem.
The notion of a theorem is deeply intertwined with the concept of proof. Indeed, theorems are true precisely in the sense that they possess proofs. Therefore, to establish a mathematical statement as a theorem, the existence of a line of reasoning from axioms in the system (and other, established theorems) to the given statement must be demonstrated.
Although the proof is necessary to produce a theorem, it is not usually considered part of the theorem. And even though more than one proof may be known for a single theorem, only one proof is required to establish the theorem’s validity.
The Pythagorean Theorem and the law of quadratic reciprocity are contenders for the title of theorem with the greatest number of distinct proofs. The Pythagorean Theorem has at least 370 known proofs. Just as a matter of interest, there is an Italian film, Teorema.
+ 45. People are confused about what a mathematician means by a theorem and a theory. What is the difference between a theorem (10) and a theory (15)? Give an example of each.
The two words seem to be used to describe very similar things, but do not seem to be interchangeable. Examples—Pythagoras’ theorem and Einstein’s theory of relativity.
A theorem is a result that can be proven to be true from a set of axioms. The term is used especially in mathematics where the axioms are those of mathematical logic and the systems in question.
A theorem is a mathematical deduction.
A theory is a set of ideas used to explain why something is true, or a set of rules on which a subject is based.
A theory is a collection of statements or ‘ways’ of thinking that purport to explain a circumscribed set of experiences. A theory can be supported by experimental evidence or anecdotal observation. The term ‘theory’ can range in connotation from synonymous with ‘conjecture’ in opposition to ‘fact’ (i.e. “I have a theory that drinking from the opposite side of the glass stops hiccups”), all the way to a set of theorems on a given set of mathematical structures (i.e. group theory).
+ 46. Discuss a mathematical theory referring to ‘independent field of study’.
Mathematicians use the term “theory” in a different way than most scientists. For mathematicians, the word “theory” means something more like “independent field of study”—set theory is the study of mathematics starting from the basic idea of sets; category theory is the study of the basic idea of function or mapping; homology theory is the study of mathematical structures in terms of chain complexes, and so forth. Each independent sub-branch of mathematics is a mathematical theory.
+ 47. Discuss a mathematical theory referring to ‘a statement inferred from a set of observations or facts’.
A scientific theory is a statement inferred from a set of observations or facts, and which is consistent with all of the observations related to whatever phenomenon the theory explains. A theory is never proven true - a new observation can always invalidate a scientific theory.
+ 48. Discuss a mathematical theorem under the following heading ‘A theorem is a statement which is proven from known facts’.
A theorem is a statement which is proven from known facts:
If it’s really a theorem, then it’s a theorem forever: no “new facts” can come along and cause a theorem to become invalid. In Euclidean geometry, the square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle will always be the sum of the squares of the other two sides. No new observation can ever change that: within the realm of Euclidean geometry, that is an absolute, unchangeable fact: it’s a theorem.
The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the two
squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the Pythagorean equation: A2 + b2 = c2 (c is the longest leg).
A2 + b2 = c2 where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides.
+ 49. Discuss a mathematical theorem referring to ‘a statement which is proven by valid logical inference within a mathematical theory’.
A theorem is a statement which is proven by valid logical inference within a mathematical theory from the fundamental axioms of that theory. The Pythagorean Theorem is a proven statement within the mathematical theory of geometry: given the basic axioms of Euclidean geometry, you can prove the Pythagorean Theorem. In sense, a theorem is similar to what most scientists call a theory, although it’s not the same thing.
+ 50. In mathematics, what is a Lemma?
A lemma is another word for a theorem. The idea behind the distinction is that a lemma is a proven statement which is not interesting in and of it, but which is proven as a step in the proof of a more interesting statement. In a proof of a complex theorem, we often break it down into steps—smaller theorems which can be combined to prove the complex theorem. When those smaller theorems don’t have any particular interest to the author of the proof except as stepping stones towards the proof the main theorem, they’re called lemmas.
+ 51. In mathematics, what is a Corollary? (15) Give an illustrative example.
A Corollary is a theorem which so obviously follows from the truth of some other theorem that it doesn’t require a proof of its own. Corollaries come up in 2 main contexts in maths.
Firstly, given a complicated theorem, it’s often helpful for readers to understand what the theorem means by showing several corollaries of the theorem that are concrete enough to be easily understood. By understanding those corollaries, the reader gains insight into the meaning of the theorem from which they derive.
Secondly, often when we want to prove some specific statement, it turns out to be easier to prove a more generic statement, and then show that the specific statement obviously follows from the more general.
If I wanted to prove that a triangle with sides of lengths 3, 4, and 5 is a right triangle, I’d just point at the proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, and then say that since 32+42=52, the fact that it’s a right triangle is a simple corollary of the Pythagorean Theorem.
+ 52. In mathematics, what is proposition? Give 2 meanings of proposition.
I’ve seen it used in 2 different ways, and I have to figure out a subject area so as to stumble upon a meaning.
In some contexts, proposition means “a basic, fundamental statement for which no proof needs to be presented.” (It means, it’s a provable statement, but the authors believe that it isn’t necessary to present the proof, either because the proof is so simple that you should be able to immediately see how you’d prove it; or because it’s something so fundamental that everybody has already seen the proof.)
The other meaning that is being used for proposition is “A statement which is being put forward as something to be proven or disproven”, as in “Consider the proposition that X”, leads into either a proof or disproof of “X”.
+ 53. Emotions have a powerful effect on our psyches as well as our bodies. Positive emotions generate body responses. Negative emotions also generate body responses. Both emotions are designed to move through the body. What influence do they each have on the body?
Positive emotions generate a sense of lightness and ease of movement. They can manifest as a desire to run, sing, smile and even dance. Negative emotions also generate body responses. They cause our shoulders to slump, our muscles to contract and our blood pressure to rise. The negative emotions that become lodged in the tissues are the culprit in many cases of emotion-generated ailments.
Emotions are designed to move through the body. When someone tells you a joke, your natural tendency is to laugh. The feeling it generates eventually moves through your body and out via the diaphragm and vocal chords. In the same way, if you stub your toe, you might experience a flash of anger and then curse or pound your fists into a pillow. These are all natural responses that allow emotions to effectively move through and then out of your body.
It gets fascinating when you look at the differences between the life cycles of positive emotions versus their negative counterparts.
Emotions such as joy, humor and empowerment move freely through our bodies. We enjoy, even encourage their presence, so they can travel unimpeded through our bodies and efficiently complete their life cycle.
Negative emotions aren’t as welcome as positive emotions. When we experience sadness, anger, resentment, loneliness or sorrow, we feel it deeply, and because it hurts, we sometimes suppress those parts of ourselves to keep the pain from intensifying or spreading. Imbalances often occur when we resist an emotion and its natural path through the body. Resistance can cause an emotion to lock into body tissue, eventually leading to physical ailments.
+ 54. As a craniosacral therapist, how would you recognize trapped emotions? Name 3 methods (other than Somato Emotional Release) one could use to release trapped emotions?
As therapists who work hands-on with clients, we regularly see cases in which traditional medicine has been ineffective in providing relief from common impairments. Trapped emotions often are the underlying cause. We can locate the emotions when we encounter areas of the body so tight that the energy flow, fluid flow and craniosacral motions are all restricted.
These restricted flow patterns indicate an imbalance. Craniosacral techniques can cause the emotion to regain movement. Intellectually, we might be curious to learn which emotion has created the disharmony. There are certainly times when an emotion will manifest itself. What we are seeking is the release of the held emotion, not its identity. We are not psychoanalysts; we are body-based therapists. Our goal is to assist the body in its own natural self-corrective capabilities so it can regain its full health and function.
There are a variety of ways to release trapped emotions:
The most reliable method is Somato Emotional Release (SER) which was designed specifically to release trapped emotions, and allow the physical ailments that often accompany these emotions to resolve naturally. The results include improved body function, loss of pain, greater mobility and enjoyment of life.
+ 55. Releasing emotions is a highly rewarding aspect of hands-on therapy—the release of painful or hurtful emotions or whether the client has an important burst of insight. In 4 paragraphs, talk about the full range of responses.
The release of painful or hurtful emotions can cause clients to react in different ways. They might burst into tears, curl into a fetal position, curse, shake or laugh uncontrollably.
When you’re well-versed in SER, you’ll understand that these outbursts are merely components of an emotional release. You’ll also learn ways to guide your clients through releases without these reactions. The purpose of an emotional release is not to get your clients in touch with their feelings, but to guide them to a natural state that allows their trapped emotions to dissipate on their own.
Frequently, releasing emotions also provides the client with important bursts of insight. You might never learn what the emotions were, but your clients may gain an understanding of their affliction, what caused it, and what it means to them personally. This can be invaluable information that serves them well as they continue to progress through their lives.
While releasing emotions is a highly rewarding aspect of hands-on therapy, it’s not recommended for beginning therapists or for those who prefer to suspend their own thought processes while working on clients. However, if you are a therapist who wants to grow and gain a better understanding of stubborn afflictions, learn more about Somato Emotional Release.
+ 56. What is Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine and how does it differ from Chiropractic Treatment and Massage? What conditions can it treat?
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine is a type of “hands-on” medical treatment based on an in-depth understanding of the musculoskeletal, circulatory, lymphatic and nervous systems of the body used by D.O.s (Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine).
+ 57. How do D.O.s differ from massage therapists?
Massage therapists are not trained as medical doctors and cannot practice medicine. While it is true that some forms of massage are similar to certain techniques used in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (such as soft-tissue techniques), Osteopathic Physicians do not “massage” the skin, but rather work with deeper structures, such as the underlying fascia, organs, vessels, bones, joints, and ligaments.
The goal of the DO is to assist the body’s natural ability to heal itself with all the accepted medical treatments, including the hands-on approach, which we call Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine. This philosophy and the use of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine are unique to the Osteopathic profession. Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine works best to improve circulation, decrease pain, improve mobility of a joint or muscular area that is in a state of spasm, restore normal range of motion, and in general to assist the body’s natural ability to heal itself.
+ 58. Andrew Taylor Still, M.D. once made a comment that “ . . . The rule of the artery is supreme . . .”. What does this mean in relation to restoring circulation to a damaged area of the body by a D.O. using his trained hands.
What this means is that restoration of perfusion or circulation to a damaged area of the body, as done by the trained hands of a D.O. is advantageous to healing. It allows the patient to return to ‘homeostasis’ or normal functioning. D.O.s believe that the body has the inherent ability to heal itself, but sometimes needs a little “hands-on help.” They also believe that the basis of health is a proper balance between the circulatory and neuro-musculoskeletal systems. Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy is often done in addition to what they are taught in traditional medicine (by way of medicines, physical and surgical/invasive therapies). I must emphasize that Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine is not the only way. in fact, in some medical circumstances it is not appropriate and should not be used.
I don’t believe in the word ‘cure’. I think it’s misleading. Successful treatment’ is better. It protects one from giving ‘guarantees’ to a patient that something will be permanently effective. Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine is effective when added to the normal regimens of medicine today. It is also a philosophy of approach to the patient in a “Wholistic” manner.
I truly believe it completes the medically trained physician to be able to handle anything that walks in the door of his office today. After all, if you compile a “TOP 10” list of common problems people come in with randomly every day, you’ll find headaches, neck and back pain, common colds, bronchitis, stress, sports medical, and “pain” of all sorts.
I apply my Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine and Osteopathic ‘thinking’ to these problems all the time. It just makes common sense and the patients love it—they don’t have to run out and see a chiropractor or be instantly referred to a physical therapist or Orthopedist (after all, most Orthopedists like to do surgery)
In conclusion, Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine is not the same thing as Chiropractic or Massage therapy, and D.O.s are not the same as allopathic (M.D.) physicians (although, as fully licensed physicians, they are considered equals in today’s health care system, and work side by side with mutual respect).
+ 59. The basic difference between Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine and Chiropractic is the basis of their philosophies.
Chiropractics consider the nervous system the basis of health, whereas Osteopathic Medicine seeks to restore:
1 Arterial, venous and lymphatic circulation
2 Proper breathing
3 Balance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
4 Flexibility, mobility, and appropriate range of motion
+ 60. What is the abbreviation OMM. Explain.
Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) is a range of physical treatments, such as manual therapy, and in particular joint manipulation. OMM is taught at all osteopathic medical schools in the U.S.A.
In Europe, most osteopaths are not physicians, and therefore most use drug-free interventions. As a result of the emphasis on the importance of the musculoskeletal system on health in their training, and their lack of prescribing rights, European osteopaths provide predominantly OMM to their patients.
+ 61. What is the theory behind massage?
It may seem that massage don’t have a direct relationship to our bones and spine. However, they can help stimulate the hormones and glands which are important to your body height.
Massage has been used for thousands of years in many different cultures as a way of body relaxation. In China, it is also used together with the theory of Acupuncture. By massaging the different reflex points in various parts of our body, it can stimulate the production and function of hormones and growth.
Chinese medication, usually western doctors, focus on the holistic nature of a person. It is not a discrete separation of each part of our body, but rather looking at our body as a whole. Therefore when we talk about increasing height, we don’t just look at the bones and spine. We should look at everything, what you eat, how you live, and your emotional state.
One of the benefits of having a massage is to relax your emotional state. Relaxing your emotions, prevents the damage that stress causes to your cells. Although this is not in direct relationship with your height, it is the foundation of releasing the pressure and excel to your full capability.
+ 62. Talk about natural and unconditioned reflexes under the following headings: Simple Reflexes, Complex Reflexes, A reflex action (reflex) and Reflex stimulation.
Simple Reflexes—natural unconditioned reflexes.
In this type of reflex, the brain is not involved.
Complex Reflexes—in this type of reflex the brain is involved.
A reflex action (reflex)—an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus i.e. blinking of eyes.
Reflex stimulation—when the stimulation of a reflex (i.e. a doctor touching the patient’s eye with cotton wool) results in a spontaneous, involuntary reaction, it is a reflex action or a reflex (blinking of eyes). It can be used for pathological conditions affecting the brain.
+ 63. Talk about complex reflexes under the following headings: Complex Reflexes and Brain Pathology.
Many reflexes are complex requiring a number of synapses in a number of different nuclei in the central nervous system (e.g., the escape reflex). Others involve a couple of synapses to function (eg., the withdrawal reflex). Processes such as breathing, digestion, and the maintenance of the heartbeat are also regarded as reflex actions.
Brain Pathology is the pathologic conditions affecting the brain, which is composed of the intracranial components of the central nervous system. Older children and adults with atypical neurology (for example, people with cerebral palsy) may retain neonatal reflexes and primitive reflexes may re-appear in adults because of certain neurological conditions including, but not limited to, dementia, traumatic lesions, and strokes.
+ 64. Talk about respiration and exhalation under the following headings: Respiration (control of ventilation), breathing (gas exchange), motor stimuli, exhalation, ventilation pattern and autonomic nervous system.
Respiration (control of ventilation) refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of physiologic ventilation.
The most important function of breathing is (gas exchange) of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Thus the control of respiration is centered primarily on how well this is achieved by the lungs.
The pattern of motor stimuli during breathing can be divided into inspiration and expiration phases.
Exhalation is usually silent, except at high ventilation rates.
The mechanism of generation of the ventilation pattern is not completely understood, but involves the integration of neural signals by respiratory control centers in the medulla and pons.
Ventilation is normally controlled by the autonomic nervous system, with only limited voluntary override. An exception to this is Ondine’s curse, where autonomic control is lost.
+ 65. In boxing, a boxer has to ‘condition’ the flinch reflex. What is the flinch reflex?
In boxing, the flinch reflex is the natural reflex where a fighter blinks or closes his eyes (blinking reflex) and stiffens his body when he sees punches coming his way. It’s natural but there is a way to fight through it. You have to practice.
For most beginners in boxing, the flinch reflex is when they can’t keep their eyes open when they are taking punches.
For other fighters, it has to do with panicking and holding their breath when they are taking punches. It only makes conditions worse since they will get the wind knocked out of them when they are knocked with a clean punch. It only makes their condition worse since they will get the wind knocked out of them when they are knocked with a clean punch. In fact, part of the reason why fighting in the ring is so tiring is because boxers can’t overcome their flinch reflex—they keep holding their breath instead of relaxing.
+ 66. There are 2 drills to help a boxer get rid of the flinch reflex. Explain.
Glove-Tapping and Jab—Jab Counter.
This is a basic drill which is recommended for all boxers regardless of their skill level. The boxer walks around the ring forwards and backwards as the trainer (or another boxer) keeps tapping him on his gloves. (These are not properly thrown punches; it’s a bunch of quick glove taps from the “attacking” boxer. Rapidly tap his gloves at awkward rhythms.) The point of the drill, for the defending boxer, is to be able to block all the light punches, while keeping his eyes open, and his breathing in perfect rhythm. It takes a lot of practice, but soon a boxer is able to take punches without his rhythm being broken up.
Many fighters lose, because they haven’t perfected this drill. The exercise prevents a boxer from leaning back when taking a punch. You and another boxer will move around the ring, taking turns to jab each other. Here’s how it works: Boxer A jabs at Boxer B first. Boxer B immediately cuts the jab short, by blocking it with the right hand, and returns with a counter-jab at the air above Boxer A’s head. When you are taking a jab, don’t flinch and lean back to cushion the punch! Instead, stop the punch, step forward, and make a counter-jab into the opponent. It takes time, but soon a boxer is able to catch a jab, and return a counter without leaning back.
+ 67. Geldard discovered Vibratese. Describe.
Vibratese was composed of 45 basic elements—the tactile equivalent of numerals and letters, which were the intersection of 3 dimensions, carefully chosen for their high tactile qualities: signal amplitude, duration, and locus of interaction.
The entire English alphabet and numerals 0 to 9 could be communicated this way.
Geldard reported that with proper training, rates of more than 60 words per minute (wpm) were possible for common prose samples—i.e., reading rates approaching 3 times that of expert Morse code. Unfortunately, upon research, Geldard’s Theory of Vibratese seems to have completely vanished.
Throuhout the years, Geldard’s early work on the development of communication through touch has inspired various researchers, a large part of which were focused on the development of tactile aids for deaf people from the 60’s to the 80’s.
Tactile aids aim at substituting a defective hearing channel for tactile displays capable of communicating ambient sounds (e.g., alarms, door bells, telephone ringing) or human speech. The challenges that were identified by the community then are very similar to the ones we are faced with today.
+ 68. Invented more than 175 years ago, Braille still contributes to giving the blind access to the written word. Despite the growing availability of other sensory substitution technology (i.e. speech synthesis), the Braille code remains an important access medium for the visually-impaired. Discuss under the following 2 headings: ‘Braille’ and ‘Its Success’.
Braille—each character (e.g., letters, numerals, punctuation) is composed of a 2-by-3 array of raised dots that were originally embossed on paper.
Nowadays, Braille is also displayed by computer peripherals, called refreshable Braille displays, that make use of an extra 4th row of dots to encode new characters.
Its success can be explained by a combination of factors.
1. Its physical characteristics (dot height, dot spacing, etc.) seem optimal for tactile discrimination.
2. It is relatively easy to produce. In fact, with a punch and portable template it is possible to use it to take notes. This played a great role in its early success.
3. The existence of contracted Braille (made of abbreviations and contractions) makes it possible for expert users to read faster.
With proper training, expert readers can reach reading rates of 100 to 150 wpm for normal Braille—about half the speed reported for print reading—and up to 190 wpm with contracted Braille.
Proficiency in Braille reading can only be achieved through extended amount of training (between 4 to 24 months).
+ 69. Why are employers choosing a corporate massage?
As a nation, we are spending more and more time in the office, work longer hours and are under more pressure, which leads to higher stress levels and poor health. There is limited work-life balance in many professions, so we have less time to enjoy our hobbies and sporting activities outside the workplace, and have less time to unwind and relax.
Forward thinking businesses are now providing their employees with an opportunity to take time out, unwind and recharge during the busy work day, reducing the physical effects of our modern working environment. Having professional therapists come to your workplace may just be the answer you are looking for.
In as little as five minutes your employees will feel the benefits of a massage. Enough time to switch off, relax and rejuvenate the mind. A corporate massage can take your employees from feeling frustrated, lethargic, anxious and stressed, to feeling calm and relaxed, and be able to deal with stressful situations, think clearly and make better decisions.
+ 70. How do I organize a corporate massage for my office?
Contact the person offering the sessions to book your corporate massage session for your employees and comply to their requirements. Choose your payment option.
There is a minimum booking of two hours for every session.
Corporate massage sessions can be paid in a number of ways:
1. Company pays all
2. Company and employees share the cost (i.e. 50/50)
3. Employee pays all.
Cost to the company is tax deductible.
+ 71. The goal of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) is to exercise the acoustic reflex muscle. Discuss this fact and mention the acoustic reflex muscle, sound vibrations to the cochlea and the acoustic reflex threshold in your discussion.
The goal of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) is to exercise the acoustic reflex muscle, which is a muscle connected to the tiniest of 3 bones located in the air space behind the eardrum. These bones help transfer sound vibrations to the cochlea, where the hearing nerves are located. The acoustic reflex muscle contracts involuntarily in response to loud noises; the lowest level at which this occurs is the acoustic reflex threshold.
+ 72. What Are the Different Types of Therapy for Dyslexia? Discuss under the following headings: Traditional and Alternative Therapies; Balance or Movement Therapy; A Combination of Teaching Methods
Traditional and Alternative Therapies
Traditional and alternative therapies for dyslexia exist. They may or may not work, and spark controversy in some medical circles. They include music-, vision- and nutritional therapy. These alternative therapies for dyslexia cause no harm to the learning-disabled child and might reduce symptoms.
Balance or Movement Therapy (Traditional and Alternative Therapy)
Balance or movement therapy for dyslexia is based on the concept of primitive reflexes that persist beyond a child’s first five years. These reflexes develop in the womb, such as the suckling reflex, to permit survival during the early months of life. Practitioners using movement therapy for dyslexia believe secondary reflexes, such as large and small motor control, fail to develop in children with learning disorders. They use movement mirroring innate primary reflexes to foster neurological growth of secondary reflexes.
A Combination of Teaching Methods
The most common treatment involves tutoring and teaching techniques (a combination of teaching methods) via special education resources to help a child adapt to the learning disability.
A reading specialist using these therapies for dyslexia typically uses phonics to teach a child to differentiate sounds of individual letters that appear in words. Reading out loud might help the child recognize how sounds of letters contribute to the sounds of words.
+ 73. Phonemic, phonological awareness and dyslexia. What are Phonemes?
Phonemes are the most basic units of sound. The English language contains 44 phonemes, which are used in combination to form spoken words. Phonemic awareness, knowledge of these sounds, plays a role in determining how well children develop language skills.
Without the ability to discriminate between and remember these sounds, individually and in combination, individuals will have great trouble acquiring new vocabulary. Most children can figure out new words by piecing the sounds together—clearly this cannot be done unless the sounds are already known.
+ 74. Phonological awareness is one step up from phonemic awareness. It describes the ability to integrate sounds with written symbols. Individuals may appear to have phonological awareness because they are able to look at a complex word and know what it sounds like. Therefore, It makes sense that dyslexia can be understood with regard to sound reception. Describe.
Phonological awareness describes the ability to integrate these spoken sounds with their written symbols. Most people acquire this recognition over time and this leads to speech, reading and writing development. It is this ability that children rely on, to understand concepts of rhyming, word patterns, and distinguishing between similar sounds (e.g. ‘pear’ and ‘bear’) and different sound emphasis (e.g. ‘accent’ and ‘ascent’).
Individuals may appear to have phonological awareness because they are able to look at a complex word and know what it sounds like. People without phonemic awareness, however, will be unable to explain the individual sounds within the word—they will only know how the word sounds because they have memorized what it looks like as a whole. This is a common disguise for people with dyslexia or language delay. Take the word ‘wonderful’ for example—a person with no phonemic awareness would not know what sound would be left if ‘wonder’ was covered up and ‘full’ remained. The individual may not be able to say ‘full’.
It makes sense then that dyslexia and associated developmental disorders can be understood with regard to sound reception. It seems logical for phonemic awareness not to exist independently of appropriate auditory processing.
+ 75. Discuss the physiology of dyslexia under the following headings.
Problems in academy
Verbal learning disability
Auditory processing problems
Sounds processed more quickly
Reversal, inversion or transposition
Visual tracking deficit
Originates in the cerebellum—traced back to infancy
Sequencing, recall, rote learning
Partially retain some primitive reflexes
Develop compensatory techniques
Interventions provide practical and helpful ways
In addition to experiencing problems in academic domains, difficulties with task-sequencing, memory, time-concepts, spatial organization and direction are observed.
It may appear unusual that a language disorder could have an effect on these unrelated areas, but when assessing the source of dyslexia, the difficulties make sense.
Studies suggest that although dyslexia presents as a verbal learning disability, it is only the symptoms of a complex neurological issue—that is, a problem with how the brain processes information.
This is evident in terms of the auditory processing problems experienced by dyslexic individuals. For a polysyllabic word such as ‘elephant’, the various sounds in the word may not be processed in the sequence they were given.
Some sounds may be processed more quickly than others which may lead to the individual’s perception of the word as ‘ephelant’.
The reversal, inversion or transposition problems experienced in reading are also reflective of a poorly developed vestibular system. The vestibular system in the inner ear is not only concerned with balance and co-ordination, but with the fine movement of the eye and its visual tracking capability.
It is less surprising then that a visual tracking deficit can exist concurrently with a weak or underdeveloped auditory system.
Recent research has uncovered an interesting theory that dyslexia originates in the cerebellum, the part of the brain concerned with movement. Although the cerebellum is mainly discussed for its effect on physical movements, it is also central to the act of learning and automating not only for physical movements but also for mental processes such as reading.
Problems in the cerebellum traced back to infancy. Children emerge from the womb with primitive reflexes designed to enable them to respond automatically to their environment. As the child matures, these primitive reflexes are overtaken by postural reflexes which allow the child to make deliberate and conscious movements.
The inner ear consists of two organs—the cochlea (responsible for sound reception), and the vestibule (responsible for body co-ordination and balance). It follows that unless these organs are operating at their optimum level and their connections to the cerebellum are strong, 2 distinct problems will arise.
Many of the skills that dyslexic people struggle with (sequencing, recall, rote learning) have their basis in the cerebellum, which is highly impacted by the physiology of the inner ear.
Children with dyslexia, however, appear to partially retain some of their primitive reflexes. It is suggested that this causes slower development of the central nervous system, which partially explains why the cerebellum may not be operating as normally expected.
Dyslexic people will inevitably develop compensatory techniques to disguise or alleviate the effects of their condition. These have important adaptive value, but should not be relied on as an exclusive means of coping.
There are interventions that provide practical and helpful ways to address the problems of the individual. While the disorder cannot be cured, there are ways of making its effects less intense. Findings suggest that the way to manage dyslexia is to concentrate on intensive work in phonemic awareness.
+ 76. What is Rote learning?
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learning, associative learning, and active learning.
Rote learning is sometimes compared to the terms parrot fashion, regurgitation, cramming, or mugging, because one who engages in rote learning may give the wrong impression of having understood what they have written or said.
In maths and science, rote methods are often used, for example to memorize formulas. There is greater understanding if students commit a formula to memory through exercises that use the formula rather than through rote repetition of the formula.
Newer standards often recommend that students derive formulas themselves to achieve the best understanding. Nothing is faster than rote learning if a formula must be learned quickly for a test; rote methods can be helpful to memorize an understood fact. However, students who learn with understanding are able to transfer their knowledge to tasks requiring problem-solving with greater success than those who learn only by rote.
Rote methods are routinely used when quick memorization is required, such as learning one’s lines in a play or memorizing a telephone number. Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples of school topics where rote learning is frequently used include phonics in reading, the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics, anatomy in medicine, cases or statutes in law, basic formulae in any science, etc.
One illustration of Rote learning can be observed in preparing quickly for exams, a technique which may be referred to as “cramming”.
+ 77. Discuss Rote learning in mathematics.
Rote learning or memorization is a common element in mathematics education, for instance in memorization of multiplication tables. While complex problems can be broken down into simpler multiplications, the answers to these basic operations themselves are essential for complex mathematical operations. It is believed, therefore, that having them at hand mentally will facilitate not only these operations (which are of use directly), but also progress to advanced concepts. A mechanism for such progress would be chunking, whereby the cognitive load of a task is reduced if its basic building blocks are larger.
Acquisition of basic skills involve not only work demonstrating why the operations work the way they do, but also repetition or drilling using examples. It is believed that practice in using mathematics can precede a solid knowledge as to why equations are able to be solved in the ways that they are learned, with the learning of these reasons being facilitated by rote-knowledge of the results of the concept. This combination of mathematical properties and theorems is enhanced memory through rote learning and practice that is believed to be important in mastering mathematics.
In college mathematics, when students start an introductory course in linear algebra, abstract algebra, or topology, they require rote learning of primitive notions and axioms to tackle their course requirements. Similarly, high school students that rote learn the definitions and axioms of Euclidean geometry will be better prepared to construct the proofs characteristic of that course.
Rote learning, called bookwork, was used in mathematics at Cambridge University in preparation for mathematical tripos:
Conscious that they might be asked to write out any proof, theorem, or principle with which they were supposed to be familiar, Cambridge undergraduates committed all such material to memory.
+ 78. In music, Rote learning can also refer to learning music by ear as opposed to musical notation interpretation.
Many music teachers make a clear distinction between the two approaches. Rote learning music is also used in music where notation isn’t sufficient to tell how it should be played (polymetric music, and others). Also this technique is commonly used in jazz, as a method to get the musician to think about the piece played in another way.
+ 79. In music, the Suzuki method and Rote learning: there is a distinct difference between rote learning and learning by ear, which is the more important skill developed by the Suzuki method. Discuss under the following headings: Learning by rote, Learning by reading and Learning by ear.
As outlined in Edward Kreitman’s book “Teaching From The Balance Point”, there is a distinct difference between rote learning and learning by ear, which is the more important skill developed by the Suzuki method. In “Rote Versus Note”, this difference is explained: “I believe that we need to examine three different approaches to learning”.
Learning by rote: Using a specific set of instructions to produce the desired result
Learning by reading: Using symbolism on the printed page to learn the sequence of notes.
Learning by ear: Using the “mind’s ear”, together with a few simple skills, and a basic understanding of the logic of the instrument, to figure out any piece.
+ 80. Keeping a journal is important but there is more than one way to keep a journal.
Notebook, Letters, Blogs, Scrapbooking, Study Journal and Meeting Journal.
+ 81. Journaling can be helpful for any purpose and area of your life from emotional healing to business goal-setting. Make a list of some of these areas.
List of journaling techniques for Organization; Goal-setting/Dreams; Memory-Keeping/Memoir; Emotional Healing; Artists, Writers and Creatives; Physical Health; Business; Wisdom; Kids and Parents.
+ 82. Coconut oil creates healing and detoxifying reactions which makes people think they are allergic to it. Name 5 healing and detoxifying reactions which the body creates to clear out toxins.
Upset stomach, gas, bloating, diarrhea and extra mucus.
+ 83. What can you do to minimize these symptoms and reactions which is evidence that your body is working hard to detoxify and heal itself?
In order to minimize reactions, start with small amounts, and slowly increase.
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THEORIES, TECHNIQUES AND THERAPIES
Excerpt for Website: Contents/Summary
ARO-HEALING Touching Lives—
THEORIES, TECHNIQUES AND THERAPIES
The Techniques and Therapies of Aro-healing
THREE PART MASSAGE AND HEALTH THERAPY SERIES
Aro-healing Touching Lives—Theories, Techniques and Therapies
The Techniques and Therapies of Aro-healing
Aro-healing Revised Complementary Therapy (ARC) Touching
Lives—ARC as a Whole Medical System
Aro-Technique Products and Product Ranges
Arochology Touching Lives—Therapies, Philosophies and Sciences
The Health Science Arochology
THEORIES, TECHNIQUES AND THERAPIES
The Techniques and Therapies of Aro-healing
THREE PART MASSAGE AND
HEALTH THERAPY SERIES
Copyright © 2013 by Lynette Barnard.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the copyright owner.
This book was printed in the United States of America.
Rev. date: 05/11/2013
To order additional copies of this book, contact:
Content List................................................................................................ 7
List of Tables........................................................................................... 22
How to Read this Book........................................................................... 33
PART 1 THE FOUNDING HISTORY OF ARO-HEALING
The Founding History of Aro-healing
2 GENERAL INFORMATION
ARO-HEALING AS A Manipulative Body-based CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) Therapy
3 THE MILLENNIUM AGE THERAPY
THE ROLE OF ARO-TECHNIQUE PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT RANGES
PART 2 MASSAGE AND HEALTH THERAPIES—
DEFINITION AND OUTLINE
4 ARO-HEALING AS A Manipulative Body-based CAM Therapy—
MASSAGE HEALTH THERAPY
DIAGONAL LINE THEORY
5 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
THE ART OF TACTILE COMMUNICATION
PART 3 TOUCHING LIVES INTERPRETATION
9 PETS AND ANIMALS
COMMUNICATE THROUGH TOUCH
RESEARCH—CANINE AND PET MASSAGE
10 BABIES AND CHILDREN
COMMUNICATE THROUGH TOUCH
RESEARCH—BABY AND INFANT MASSAGE
THREE PART MASSAGE AND HEALTH THERAPY SERIES:
Aro-healing Touching Lives—Theories, Techniques and Therapies
The Techniques and Therapies of Aro-healing
PART 1 THE FOUNDING OF ARO-HEALING
CHAPTER 1: Definition and Outline
The Founding History of Aro-healing
MASSAGES, THERAPIES, TREATMENTS
1 Governing Body
2 Mission and Company Profile
The Role of Massage
1 The Aro-healing Technique
The Role of Touch
1 The Aro—Touch Technique
2 Aro-Reflex Stimulation Therapy
What is Aro-healing
1 Advantages of using Aro-health massages
Professional Massages Significance of Aro-healing
Contents for Chapter 2: Whole Medical Systems
Influencing the Body
Influencing the Mind
1 History of Massage
2 Massage Therapy
3 Massage as a way of relieving stress
Different Types of Massage Therapies
Different Types of Massage and Touch Therapy Techniques
Therapy Discussion - Aromatherapy Essential Oils (100 percent pure)
1 How does it work
2 Can Reflexology do any harm
Traditional Thai foot massage
1 Do you do traditional Thai foot massage
2 Possible reactions
1 Acupressure is part of a Traditional Chinese System of Medicine
Whole Medical Systems –
1 In which category does it belong?
2 Conventional Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and Whole Medical Systems
Whole Medical Systems - Acupuncture
1 The difference between Acupuncture and Acupressure
2 Acupuncture facts
1 Ayurveda mind and body type
2 Ayurvedic massage
3 Ayurvedic Oils and Medicines
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
1 Chinese Materia Medica
2 The diagnostic tools differ from those of conventional medicine
1 Anthropology of Herbalism
1 Six principles form the basis of Naturopathy
2 Natural treatment approach
1 Regulation of Homeopathic Treatments
2 Side Effects and Risks
Aro-healing Revised Complimentary Therapy (ARC)
1 Aro-Technique Products and Product Ranges
2 Oils used by Aro-healing
Therapy Discussions for Chapter 2:
Aromatherapy is an ancient healing art which uses essential oils
Reflexology An alternative medicine method
Traditional Thai foot massage Based on Traditional Chinese massage of the feet
Acupressure An ancient Chinese technique based on the principles of Acupuncture
Acupuncture An ancient Chinese technique that works by releasing the body’s vital energy, known as Chi
Ayurveda In India, Ayurvedic medicine has complex formulas to balance “Vata”, “Pitta” or “Kapha”
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Uses a number of therapeutic approaches such as acupuncture and moxibustion, herbs and other natural products, and massage
Herbalism Herbology (Phytotherapy) The study and use of medicinal properties of plants and plant extracts
Naturopathy Ancient and modern therapies from other traditions
Homeopathy A complete system of medical theory and practice
Aro-healing Revised Complimentary Therapy (ARC) Aro-healing, Aro-healing Massage Therapy
Contents for Chapter 3: Aro-Technique Products
· Why is an Aro-Technique Product different from other products;
What does ‘cold pressed’ or ‘first cold compressed’ mean;
Benefits of using ARO-TECHNIQUE PRODUCTS
· The Role of Aro-Technique Products and Product Ranges: Discussions from Newsletters; DEMONSTRATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS AT LAUNCHES AND PROMOTIONS
· The Role of 100 Percent Pure Aromatic Essential Oils;
· The Role of Aromachology and Somatology; Aromachology and Aromatherapy both promote the positive effects of fragrance on mood
ARC—Aro-healing Revised Complimentary Therapy
PDL—Principle of Diagonal Lines
RFC—Reasonable Feasibility Concept
PTT—Polygon Triangular Theory
RSB—Reflex Stimulation and Bodywork
RPPT—Reflex Pressure Point Therapy
BPT—Breathing—and Posture Therapy
ATI—Alexander Technique International
DTM—Deep Tissue Massage
TFM—Thai Foot Massage
TTM—Thai Traditional Medicine
DVT—Deep Venous Thrombosis
D.O. —Doctor of Osteopathy
CNS—Central Nervous System
HIT—Head Impulse Testing
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