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The Theories and Techniques of Aro-healing as an Alternative Therapy




, , , Can cancer be inherited? Cancer isn't passed on in the same way as, say, blue eyes or blonde hair. (One such cancer is a rare eye cancer called retinoblastoma.) However, certain cancers, such as breast, bowel and ovarian cancers, do cluster in some families, and may be caused by a single gene. Others may have inherited pre-cancerous conditions, such as polyposis coli - small growths on the large bowel which can turn into bowel cancer. My husband smokes. Does this mean I have a higher risk of lung cancer? Unfortunately, yes. Passive smokers stand a 10 to 30 per cent higher risk of contracting lung cancer - a good reason to encourage your husband to give up cigarettes.                           Is there a link between stress and cancer? There's no hard evidence that stress boosts the risk of cancer, though it can affect the immune system. Trials are now being done to see if relaxation can improve the body's defences against cancer. Of all the medical conditions, cancer is probably the most dreaded and feared. But early diagnosis and ever-improving modern treatments can often lead to a complete cure. One in three of us in the UK will suffer from cancer at some time in our life, and one in five of us will die from it. The most common cancers are lung, breast, bowel, ovary, kidney and melanoma - the most dangerous form of skin cancer. The good news is that almost a third of the people who develop cancer will be cured. And many more will live for several years with the disease, without any problems directly linked to it. HOW CANCER DEVELOPS Our bodies are made up of a variety of different tissues. Each is made up of millions of cells, all arranged in an orderly manner. The appearance and shape of cells from different organs and tissues vary. For example, liver cells are completely different to skin cells. Throughout our lives, cells are constantly lost and replaced by a process of division. Normally this process is under strict control, so that exactly the right number are produced to replace those that are lost. If an injury occurs, the rate of cell production speeds up until it has healed, then slows down again. OUT OF CONTROL Malignant cancer cells divide and grow uncontrollably and will continue to do so indefinitely unless some form of treatment is given. Eventually, they become so numerous that they are visible as a tumour or growth. Cancer cells develop from the body's own normal cells in a series of stages that takes place over many years. The first step is a damaged gene in an individual cell. The faulty gene may be inherited or it may be triggered by factors such as smoking, over-exposure to the sun, or certain types of bacterial or viral infection. But, once it has developed, it switches off another gene which tells the cell when to stop dividing. Abnormal cells are produced all the time, but are destroyed by the body's defence system. When cancer occurs, for some unknown reason, the system breaks down and an abnormal cell survives. LACK OF RESPONSE The cell becomes progressively more abnormal and responds less and less to the body's normal control mechanisms. Eventually, there are enough cancerous cells to form a tumour. Cells from the edge of the tumour then invade and damage the surrounding tissues. Though cancer usually develops unseen, the cells can often be recognized before they become cancerous. For example, a cervical smear test is designed to pick up abnormal cells in the cervix at a pre-cancerous stage when they can be easily treated. BENIGN TUMOURS To most of us, the word 'tumour' automatically signifies cancer. But, in fact, most tumours are found to be benign, or harmless. Unlike malignant tumour cells, benign tumours go on dividing, and may even push aside normal tissue, but they do not invade it. They are also unlikely to spread. It's the ability of cancer cells to spread, or metastasize, that makes the disease so serious. Cancers which metastasize early on are called aggressive tumours, while others don't start to spread until a later stage. Tumours are often graded depending on how aggressive they are. The cells spread via the blood and the lymph - fluid produced by the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system At first, they pass into blood vessels in the primary, or original, tumour. They may also pass into the lymphatic system of surrounding tissues, from where they drain back into the bloodstream. As the blood travels round the body, some of the cells become stuck at the end of fine blood vessels called capillaries in various organs elsewhere. In a second stage of metastatis, the cancer cells pass through the walls of the blood capillaries and enter a nearby organ, such as the lungs, liver, bone or brain. This organ is often far away from the original tumour. Most of these cells die but some may survive to form secondary tumours, which may also begin to metastasize. Symptoms A change in bowel or bladder habits. A persistent sore throat, cough or hoarseness. Persistent indigestion. Unexplained weight loss. Obvious change in size or bleeding of a mole. Unusual bleeding or discharge. Thickening or lump in the breast, testicle or elsewhere. WHAT CAUSES CANCER? Cancer is not just one disease. There are hundreds of different types, but they all occur when cells multiply in an uncontrolled way. Cancer has many different causes. The biggest known risk factor is smoking, which causes over a third of cancers and is responsible for a similar number of cancer deaths. THE AGE CONNECTION However, cancer is mainly a disease of old age. Though the overall risk of death from cancer has actually gone up by six per cent over the past 30 years, this is largely because, thanks to modern medicine, better diet, sanitation and hygiene, we are living long enough to reach an age when we are at a high risk of cancer. This risk varies and depends on certain factors such as age, inherited characteristics such as a fair skin, which increases the risk of skin cancer, and inherited faulty genes, which will increase the background risk of certain types of cancer. In the race for a cancer cure, early diagnosis is vital - a small cancer tumour is usually easier to treat than a well­developed one. The first step in the diagnostic process is for you to be alert to any suspicious symptoms, particularly bleeding, and report them to your doctor as soon as possible. Of course, these symptoms will probably turn out not to be cancer, but it's better to be safe than sorry. For most of us, a diagnosis of cancer is devastating news, but it is no longer an inevitable death sentence. There has been a vast improvement in diagnosis and treatment in recent years. Far fewer children now die of cancer than they did 20 years ago; there has been a significant decrease in stomach and bowel cancer in adults, and lung cancer among men has also gone down. BETTER CHANCES At the same time, improved treatments have led to people with other sorts of cancer surviving longer. For example, the discovery of hormonal or cell-killing drugs, plus a new awareness of the best time to perform surgery, has led to more women living longer with breast cancer. POSSIBLE SIGNS You should never ignore suspicious symptoms such as: Bleeding from the anus, which can be a sign of bowel cancer. Bleeding from the vagina, either between periods or after the menopause, can be a symptom of both cervical or uterine cancer, especially in older women. Blood in the urine could be a clue to kidney or bowel cancer. Blood in vomit should never be ignored, unless you have had a recent nosebleed, as it can be a sign of stomach cancer. A persistent cough or hoarseness that isn't associated with a cold or chest infection and goes on for longer than two weeks can be a sign of cancer of the larynx or cancer of the lung. Many forms of cancer can be treated by means of radiotherapy. Here, a woman cancer patient is being prepared for treatment. The white device behind the radiographer rotates around the patient's head, delivering penetrating rays which are beamed towards the tumour. A change in bowel habits, for example going to the toilet more or less frequently than usual, having alternate constipation or diarrhoea, dark streaks in the stools or having black, tarry stools, are signs of bleeding in the intestine. See the doctor, too, if you are losing weight without dieting - the loss could be around 22kg (l0lbs) over 10 weeks or less - especially if this is combined with abdominal pain or a change in bowel habits. TESTING TIMES If the doctor suspects you may have cancer, he will refer you to your local hospital for tests and diagnosis. Initial tests may involve investigations such as X-rays and ultrasound, which can reveal the presence of a lump. A part of the suspicious tissue will then be examined under the microscope. This can be done either by biopsy - snipping off a small piece of the tissue for examination - or by cytology, which is studying cells from body fluids such as sputum or cervical mucus for cancer cells. The doctor will then perform a thorough clinical examination, taking particular care to check the lymph nodes adjacent to the tumour to see whether the cancer has spread. Simple blood tests are then run to check liver and bone function and a chest X-ray looks for evidence of spread to these sites. If the doctor suspects cancer has spread elsewhere in the body, this area may also be scanned. HOW SCANS WORK The scanning technique used is usually isotope scanning, where a small amount of a radioactive substance is injected into the body and the blood carries it to the suspected organ or area of tissue. Here, it is scanned using a special instrument which detects radiation. Cancerous cells are clearly visible because they take up a different amount of radioactivity than healthy tissue. Once the doctor has detailed knowledge of the type of cancer, its stage of development and its likely progress, he can then plan a treatment regime with the patient. The aim of cancer treatment is to kill or remove every cancer cell from the patient. There are several different forms of treatment, which may be used alone or may be combined, depending on the nature of the cancer. REMOVING THE TUMOUR Surgery is most often used to treat cancer of the skin, stomach, bowel, uterus, breast and testicle. It may also be used to cut out cancers in the face and neck, including the thyroid gland and larynx, or voice box, as well as cancers of the ovary and the prostate gland.                           As it is vital to remove all the cancerous tissue, the surgeon will cut out the tumour together with some surrounding normal tissue. Since cancer usually spreads first to lymph glands in the area near the tumour, the surgeon may need to remove these too. Where possible, the surgeon will also reconstruct the area in which the cancerous tissue has been surgically removed. For example, if you have had a mastectomy, or breast removal, there are various techniques for giving you a new breast These include using muscle from other parts of the body, such as the shoulder, and inserting a breast implant. In many cases, surgery alone is all that is required. However, additional forms of treatment may be given before or after surgery to make it easier and more effective. Doctors call this way of giving treatment adjuvant therapy. RADIOTHERAPY High energy rays are used to damage the genetic material of cancer cells so they are unable to divide. These might be X-rays, or beta or gamma rays from a radioactive source. The rays are beamed carefully at the area to be treated. Cancer cells are more sensitive to radiotherapy than normal cells, and so are killed at a greater rate. Inevitably, radiotherapy also damages normal cells close to the tumour. But, thanks to the body's ability to repair itself, quite large doses of radiation can usually safely be given, provided the treatment is given slowly. Treatment only lasts a few minutes, is painless and is usually given daily on an out-patient basis for five to six weeks. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES Radiotherapy treatment may also be given externally, using special X-ray machines which direct the rays to the body. In some cases radioactive implants, such as special wires, are inserted into the cancer, allowing large doses of radioactivity to be delivered to the tumour itself with only a small amount directed to the surrounding normal tissue. In cancer of the thyroid gland, a radioactive drink of iodine is sometimes used to destroy cancerous cells painlessly. Chemotherapy is usually given by injection, through an infusion, or drip, or occasionally as tablets and capsules. Some people experience few side-effects from radiotherapy apart from tiredness. However, radiotherapy can make you feel unwell, particularly if you have been feeling ill beforehand as a result of the cancer. Other side-effects may include nausea, vomiting, headaches, diarrhoea and, where radiation is aimed at the stomach or head, a sore mouth. Hair loss may also occur if the head is treated but hair usually regrows within six months. Radiotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms of cancer, particularly pain, in cases where a cure is not possible. CHEMOTHERAPY Chemotherapy involves treating cancer with cytotoxic, or cell­poisoning, drugs. These destroy cancer cells by combining with and damaging the genetic material of the cells so that they cannot divide. Unfortunately, these drugs poison all rapidly dividing cells, causing side-effects such as hair loss, nausea and a lowered blood count. Damage to normal cells can be minimized by giving large doses of drugs all at once, then leaving a gap of a few weeks before the next treatment to allow normal cells to recover. Chemotherapy may be given intravenously, injected into a muscle, or by mouth. Where there is a risk of relapse after surgery and/or radiotherapy, chemotherapy is given even when there is no sign of cancer present. This treatment technique is known as adjuvant chemotherapy. Some cancers are affected by hormonal levels in the body. Hormone therapy involves either blocking, reducing or increasing hormone levels to act on the cancer. The main types of cancer treated in this way include certain types of breast cancer as well as prostate, thyroid and uterine cancers. Leukaemia, lymphomas and cancers of the lymphatic system, such as Hodgkin's disease, can also be treated. NATURAL DEFENCES Biological therapies are a group of treatments which use natural substances made by the body's immune system, such as cytokines, in order to control cell growth, to increase the body's defences against cancer cells or to boost the production of antibodies to fight cancer cells. Substances known as colony­stimulating factors are also used to help the body recover from the effects of treatment. The therapies are given by injection. At present, most of them are still being tested in clinical trials. More effective therapy As scientists discover more about how cells work, they are developing better treatments. These include drugs attached to antibodies, designed to 'recognize' cancer cells; drugs that block growth factors - substances which encourage cells to grow; and drugs that prevent cancer cells from invading other tissues. Scientists are also beginning to understand how cancer cells turn on and switch off enzymes in the body, which should lead to more effective anti-cancer drugs. Doctors are also working on better ways of detecting cancer. For example, a blood test for a gene thought to lie behind clusters of cancers of the breast, cervix and bowel may be available within the next few years. SIDE-EFFECTS Though all types of cancer therapy create side-effects, with modern methods of management these need not be too troublesome. Common side-effects, such as nausea and vomiting, can be managed with anti-sickness drugs. Mouth ulcers can be prevented by the use of mouth washes and a pain-killing gel. Unfortunately, the embarrassment of hair loss is usually only avoided by wearing a wig, though the hair will grow back. A HELPING HAND Complementary therapies, such as homeopathy, herbalism, healing and acupuncture, are often used in conjunction with conventional medical treatments for cancer. And, today, some cancer units actually offer these treatments to patients. They can help you to relax and to cope with the strain of treatment. At the same time, they may give you back a feeling of being in control of your own body. Screening is performed for common cancers which affect a large number of people. It may also be worthwhile if you know you have a high risk of contracting cancer, for example if your work exposes you to substances known to cause cancer, or if you come from a family with a history of cancers. Screening is a means of detecting early cancers even before there are any signs and symptoms. This means that the cancer can be treated without delay, enhancing the patient's chances of survival. At present, the only national screening programmes are the cervical smear test and mammography ­both for women. A national bowel screening programme for both men and women may be set up, which tests for hidden blood in the stools. In the meantime, people at higher risk of the disease, for example because it runs in their families, can ask to be screened by their doctor or at one of the family cancer clinics for ovarian, testicular or prostate cancer. Cellular facts All cancer cells share certain characteristics: They are long-lived and not subject to the normal bodily influences that control cell growth. They can invade, or grow into, normal tissue. They can migrate to distant tissue and form new tumours. They may divide faster than normal. The body tolerates the presence of cancer without rejecting it as a foreign invader.   Laser treatment is used to activate a cancer-killing drug. Cancerous cells from a prostate tumour  have spread to form metastases, or secondary cancers, in the vertebrae. The orange shadows on a chest X-ray reveal cancer in both lungs. Radiotherapy  is a mainstay of cancer treatment. Accurate planning using aids such as scans  is vital in order to cause minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. A scan reveals cancerous cells which have formed a large tumour in the brain. A natural killer cell attacks a cancer cell. Derived from the Pacific yew tree, Taxol is proving effective against breast and ovarian cancers. A doctor plans radiotherapy treatment with the aid of a computer. Treatment can sometimes cause unpleasant side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and hair loss.     Taken from THE HEALTH FILE  A Complete Medical Encyclopedia, A MARSHALL CAVENDISH REFERENCE COLLECTION by DR JOHN CORMACK, WEEKLY Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Singapore Malta RSA Other Countries Namibia. DR JOHN CORMACK, BDS MB BS MRCS LRCP, is the medical consultant to The Health File. The senior partner in an Essex­ based practice, he is also a member of the General Medical Council and has written for numerous magazines and news­papers as well as for the medical press. He is a regular broadcaster on television and radio and has scripted a number of award-winning educational videos.   Note: Where gender is unspecified, individuals are referred to as 'he', This usage is for convenience only and not intended to imply that all doctors and patients are male. Medicheck charts are only a rough guide to diagnosis, Always seek medical advice if you have worrying symptoms. Copyright Marshall Cavendish 1995, Printed in Great Britain, Published by Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd, 119 Wardour Street, London WIV 3TD , Tips on Personal Appearance & Hygiene - Personal hygiene and appearance are the first things that people notice By David Arnold, eHow Contributor      When meeting someone for the first time, the first impression you make will leave an imprint of your appearance to the other party. The way you look in terms of style and hygiene are the biggest factors with an initial impression. Although it may seem shallow to concentrate on personal appearance only, it is one of the most essential facets of making a good impression. In utilizing a few tips and tricks, you can put your best face forward everyday. Exfoliate the Skin Although bathing seems like an elementary part of hygiene, most people do not understand that bathing in conjunction with exfoliation is essential to keep skin clean and rejuvenated. By exfoliating the skin with face and body scrubs, it reduces blackheads, blemishes and sloughs off dead skin cells. If left untreated, skin can have a dull appearance. Exfoliating with a skin or body scrub can turn skin from muddy to ruddy. If you are not able to purchase expensive body scrubs, simple household items such as baking soda are great ways to exfoliate on a budget. Pure baking soda is a natural product and can be used with or without your favorite soaps and body washes. In utilizing exfoliators, you will reveal glowing, healthy skin. Dress Appropriately Although current trends may suggest certain styles of clothing, every body type cannot accommodate those styles, therefore, it important to select clothing that is appropriate for your body type. For example if you're a woman or man that has a larger bottom half, don't opt for clothing that will accentuate larger hips such as low rise jeans or skinny leg jeans. In order to gain a better grasp of your body type, simply stand in front of a mirror and look at the size and proportions of your body to figure out your body type. Once you have done so, you can then begin to dress it accordingly. Choosing Appropriate Hairstyle When choosing a hairstyle, take into consideration the type of lifestyle that you lead. For example, if you are a public speaker, red and green streaks will not showcase a qualified professional. Choose hairstyle options that fit your lifestyle. Oval shapes can wear virtually any hairstyle, both long and short. Rectangle or square face shapes should opt for styles that create layers and curves to fill any linear areas of the face. Round faces may appear too full and pudgy in the cheek areas, therefore styles that add volume to the top should be employed to make the face appear slighter longer. Triangle and diamond shaped faces should opt for sweeping bangs and fringes to soften harsh lines. Nevertheless, choose hairstyles that will enhance your features while creating the illusion of an oval face. Remain Clean-shaven First, it is important to keep a clean-shaven appearance. Although this may seem directed towards men, women also have amounts of facial hair that can be seen by other people. Excess amount of body hair are also unsightly and may cause sweating and body odor. Therefore, keep the face and body neat and clean. Try Different Deodorants You may notice that at different times of the year, your favorite deodorant may not be working for you as well. Changes in climate as well as hormonal changes can cause a deodorant's odor and wetness fighting ability to slowly taper off. This is the time to try different deodorants. After you have found a few that work, keep them in your arsenal for those times when change is needed.   ·        Eczema Need Helpwww.reitzer.co.za Use Pure Cream- Recommended by Dermatologists-email for a sample ·        Aging Skin TreatmentsThermage.com/FindADoctor No Surgery, Injections or Downtime Find an Official Thermage® Doctor References ·        Health911.com: Remedies for Body Odor ·        Greatestlook.com: Face Shapes ·        Moneyinstructor.com: Good Personal Hygiene Read more: Tips on Personal Appearance & Hygiene | eHow.com ttp://www.ehow.com/list_6384206_tips-personal-appearance-hygiene.html#ixzz1TQmnTeeK , , , TO  a number of people at the same time. But can it ever replace individual treatment? Q Is group therapy ever harmful? A In the early days of group therapy when there were few properly trained group organizers, some people were psychologically harmed by it and this affected its image. But now that there are professional facilitators (organizers). or specialized therapists who can monitor those who are accepted into any particular type of group, and can look after the group's functioning without interfering unless absolutely necessary, the dangers are virtually non-existent. Q Can anybody run a group therapy session? A Looking after a group looks easy, for the really good facilitator hardly seems to be anything more than just another group member. But, in fact, a group leader should either have professional psychological qualifications, or a great deal of group experience, or­ preferably both. If you are thinking of attending group therapy sessions, make sure beforehand that the organization running the group has some sort of professional standing. Q I have heard that some groups take off all their clothes and have an orgy as a form of therapy. Is this true? A Nudity has been used as a technique to lower people's defences in some cases. Touching and stroking, either while clothed or unclothed, has also been used to make people more aware of feelings and relationships. However, groups do not indulge in orgies, as these would' be unlikely to help anyone, In any'case, nothing ever happens at a session without the express. agreement of all the members. Q Does group therapy always benefit all the members of a group? A This is very difficult to answer, sometimes the benefits are subtle and recognized less by the person than by those around him. It is probably fairer to say that most people benefit from most of the sessions, but to different extents. Group therapy is used to help people with mental problems, those with difficulty in relating to other people, or those who simply want to try and understand them­selves better. Many of the peoflle who undergo treatment are attracted by the reassuring informality in the approach used and by the wide range of help that group therapy can give. Types of group therapy Therapy groups are set up for various purposes. The form they take depends on the reason why they were set up. An assertion group, for instance, might be set up for people who feel that they back down too easily in arguments. The members of such a group will help each other by role-playing-acting out situa­tions similar to those with which they have difficulty coping. They can thus learn and practise argument-winning techniques. In this way they will be able to project confidence into their approach to such confrontations. Groups run to help people improve the way in which they relate to others, or just to help them understand themselves, are sometimes known as encounter groups or T-groups. People who suffer from particular phobias or anxieties may be treated in groups by desensitization. With the help of the therapist, members of the group can learn to overcome their fears. The motivation to succeed becomes greater when others are present. It has also been found that in spite of the reticence many people have about speaking of their sex lives, many sexual problems can be successfully treated in a group situation. Who needs group therapy? People with marital problems who go to a family planning or family therapy clinic may take part in group therapy. Doctors and hospitals may refer a patient for group therapy and put him or her in touch with a group. It may also be used in situations where individuals are ha\'ing difficulty in inter­grating with society. such as delinquent centres, open prisons or addiction rehabilitation centres. Sometimes it is used on some fairly sewrely mentally disturbed patients in hospital-though often the communication in these cases is more between therapist and patient than between patient and patient. It could be said that group therapy is good for anyone because it can be used as a process for enha!1cing life-style as well as for remedial purposes. Certainly it A tug of war is used to teach teamwork and organized effort and to dispel feelings of frustration and hostilit)·. GROUP THERAPY seems to have particularly good results with people who have no specific problem but wish to have a better understanding of themselves or want to improve their ability to communicate with others. Where it takes place A group therapy session may take place in a hospital, a prison or a psychiatric centre. It might take place in a doctor's consulting rooms after surgery hours. Sometimes group therapy sessions are advertised in magazines which feature forthcoming events, or they may be advertised on Town Hall or family planning clinic notice boards. Often these sessions take place in a room specially hired for the purpose, anything from a church hall to a hotel suite. Sometimes they are held at the home of one of the group members, generally an unmarried person so that there are no interruptions. When a session is advertised like this it is always a good idea to check that it is being run by a reputable person. Mostly they are run by societies, who are quite used to people checking up and do not mind. What happens What actually happens at a group therapy session depends on why it was set up. A typical encounter group session starts with exercises to help members to Revertion to childlike behaviour is common when a person is under stress. Possible group therapy exercises and their purpose One member breaks into the circle formed by members interlocking arms. To enable a new group member or a member who feels shut out to feel part of the group. Making noises, playing tag, imitating the play­ground activity of children To reduce anxiety and shyness in a beginning group; to warm up a group; to produce a return to childhood which allows members to lose their adult inhibitions. Arm wrestling, tussling and other 'combat' games. To eliminate hostile tensions between members and to teach very shy people to be more aggressive. Members acting in pairs confront each other with their exact feelings towards each other. To teach emotional assertiveness; to get rid of anxiety attached to being assertive. Tug of war. To teach teamwork and organized effort; to teach instant response to others; to dispel frustration and hostility. Fantasy and pretend games. To arouse emotions and to give members the opportunity to work through a difficult rela­tionship emotionally. Miming affectionate attitudes to another group member To teach people how to show and how to accept affection. Members acting in pairs sum up and para­phrase partner's statements before making their own statements. To teach each member to listen carefully to what others say before responding; to teach understanding of other's points of view. get to know each other and work on their problems (other groups restrict them­selves to talking about problems I. K 0 lead is given as to the purpose of the group or how it should work. Not even the group organizer, or facilitator, as he or she is generally Clllled, tries to resolye this uncertainty, for it is up to the group itselfto work out its own purpose. The group begins to discover whether not being told what to do is unnerving and that sometimes people like or dislike one another for no good reason. Members often start by expressing very positive statements to each other. These positive sentiments are very much surface pleasantries but they help to build a web of trust around the group. Support That web of trust nevertheless gives a certain right to say less pleasant things to each other and this stage is both natural and inevitable. A marked feature of the group is it powerful ability to support and heal any member of the group who seems to be under excessive pressure. The benefits Some critics of group therapy have sug­gested that the skill learned within the group do not transfer to the real world and that any advantages gained from group therapy do not last. However, when a specific aim, such as curing a phobia or helping a person to become more asser­tive, is involved the effects are as good as individual therapy. With encounter and other life-style enhancing groups, effects vary from person to person but some people enjoy the experience so much that they will attend sessions just for pleasure.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A – Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS -   DOCTOR’S ANSWERS – PART 22, GROUP THERAPY, Page 599 – 600.   (Sorry - Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out) , , Experience hot flushes during the change of life. Many suffer in silence, thinking there is little that can be done for them, but in fact medical help is available to help them cope with the problem. Q I am 51 years old and still have my periods regularly every month. I have been having hot flushes for about four months. Is this the change of life? A The change of life (menopause) is the time when the periods stop. So, to be exact you have not yet reached the menopause. Nevertheless, sometimes the hot flushes associated with it start before the periods begin to alter. If you are worried, consult your doctor. Q I am 56. My periods stopped three years ago but I have never had any hot flushes. Am I normal or is something wrong? A There is no need to worry-you are one of the lucky ones! About 20 per cent of women never have hot flushes at the menopause. Q I have been waking up the last few nights feeling hot and sweaty. Could this be hot flushes? lam52. A Yes it could. But if it has only been happening for a few nights and you ache all over as well, it could be flu or some other infection. If it continues see your doctor. Q Can men get hot flushes or are women the only sufferers? A Yes, men do get hot flushes but it is now generally accepted that although men may slow down in many ways as they get older, they do not undergo a 'change of life' in exactly the same way as a woman does, so their hot flushes usually have some other cause. Q If women are told they should stop taking the contraceptive pill when they reach 35 why are they given the same hormones when they reach menopause? A The hormones are not exactly the same though similar and the dosage is smaller. When hormones are given at the menopause they are replacing ones the body is no longer making to lessen the effect of this loss, whereas hormones in the contraceptive pill are used to change the amount of hormones being released from the pituitary gland. The term 'hot flushes'-also known as 'hot sweats', 'the heats' or, in America, 'hot flashes'-is used to describe the sen­sation of heat that is felt spreading all over the upper part of the body and up the neck to the face. Hot flushes most commonly affect women at the menopause (change of life). This may occur before the age of 40 or not until the late 50s but in most women it happens between the ages of 45 and 55, the average age being 51. There may be little to see extemally during a hot flush, although blotchy red patches may appear on the skin. Hot flushes may last from only a few seconds to half an hour, and sometimes the skin becomes moist or drenched in sweat. A cold feeling with shivering may follow and this is sometimes accompanied by dizziness, palpitations and, occasionally, fainting. Hotfiushes can be acutely embarrassing to the sufferer, especially if the skin becomes moist or drenched in sweat. A hot flush is quite unlike a blush, which produces a milder, warm feeling that spreads over the face ar.d neck. Menopausal hot flushes rar:ge feCIT: the very mild that pass quickly. tc, :::c~e :::8.: are most distressing a."'1cl OC2ur ~\-eral times throughout the clay and night. Sometimes they can become continuous over many hour~ at a time. sleep may be disturbed and the 5ufferer throw off the bedclothes to try and cool down. Causes At the menopause the ovaries cease pro­duction of oestrogen and stop releasing eggs. Menstruation (periods) ceases and the body has to adapt to a new hormone balance. Until the menopause, oestrogen is secreted by ovarian follicles in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland at the base of the skull. The follicles gradually run out of oestrogen, and wear out, so that when the menopause IS reached the ovaries no longer contain any of these follicles. Because there are no follicles to respond to the FSH there is a much higher level ofFSH in the body. This can lead to hot flushes as small blood vessels in the skin become more easily dilated, leading to an increase in skin tem­perature and, at times, a reddening of the skin. Over-stimulation of the sweatglands may also occur. However, although changes in hor­mone levels are thought to be res­ponsible for hot flushes, it is possible to have them with perfectly normal hor­mone levels several months. or eyen years, before the periods begin to altH. Other women may haye a hormo:1e deficiency yet have no hot flushes. Yet again, it is possible for hot flushes to persist in spite of the hormone replacement therapy which may be used to correct other symptoms due to the menopause, such as dryness of the vagina which makes sexual intercourse painful and difficult. Some women notice that some forms of stress bring on hot flushes. They are likely to be more irritable, get upset and cry more easily than usual. Simple day-­to-day tasks that previously caused no problem become difficult and can even lead to a sense of confusion. Other causes There are other very different causes of hot flushes which can occur in men as well as women. There is the feeling of going hot and cold with sweating and shivering, especially during the night, which occurs with many infections that produce a fever. Eating hot, spicy or curried foods can also produce a hot flush and sweating. Alcohol may also have the same effect. Hot flushes can particularly affect people who have a mild form of diabetes which can be treated with tablets instead of insulin injections. One sort of treat­ment-chlorpropamide-is known to interact with alcohol and about one in three diabetics treated with it will experience hot flushes if they drink even a small amount of alcohol. Another less common cause of hot flushes is a skin complaint, rosacea, which produces a ruddy discoloration of the forehead, nose, cheeks and chin. Occasionally a growth called a carcinoid tumour, can occur in the stomach or intestine. This produces excessive amounts of a hormone called serotonin which affects different body organs and causes symptoms such as asthma, loud rumblings in the abdomen and diarrhoea, as well as hot flushes which affect the whole body including the arms and legs. Treatment Some women's menopausal symptoms are very mild and transient and require no treatment other than encouragement to accept the natural changes that are taking place and to watch their weight. Reasonable exercise helps to safeguard good health, particularly at the time of the menopause. Walking, swimming, gardening and similar activities are well worthwhile. However. If the flushes are more severe and frequent, a woman should see her doctor so that proper diagnosis can be Coping with hot flushes .,', -;er ',OJ feel a hot flush coming on it s 2es, ~ VOll can stop whatever you are J2r-;j ariO, if possible, sit down quietly. If ,J~- "'0, f,Jshes are very mild and don't as, ::;r;j ,,,ere may not be time to do an\trrg'rore. If, however, you are one o~ ere v: JCKY ones whose hot flushes are severe and last more than a minute or tvvc Jnoo any tight clothing if possible-especially a high collar. If you are in a hot room, or with a lot of people, try and get out into the fresh air. .If you are driving a car, or working with dangerous machinery, and your hot flushes tend to make you feel faint or dizzy you should stop the car or move away from any moving parts of the machine with which you are working. • The discreet use of a small fan might be helpful unless this would make you feel more embarrassed. It is worth remembering that unless your hot flushes are severe, it is unlikely that anybody else will notice your discomfiture as the face seldom looks as hot and wet as it feels to you. .If you are very uncomfortable at night have a warm shower or bath before going to bed and use only the lightest of bed clothes and avoid nylon material altogether. .If night hot flushes are severe even after hormone replacement treatment tell your doctor as he might be able to prescribe a suitable sedative to take when you go to bed. • Tell your husband how you are feeling so that he can understand your problem and he may be able to help you to relax. HOT FLUSHES made, possibly by testing the hormone levels, and treatment given if necessary. The doctor may refer her to a gynae­cologist for a specialist's opinion if in doubt about the treatment. Hormone replacement therapy may be considered. Hormones are usually given to replace the body's normal ones if one of the glands responsible for secreting hor­mones stops working. In the case of the menopause, oestrogen is no longer being produced and if this is causing problems, such as severe hot flushes, the patient may be given oestrogen. It may be taken in tablet form, or given by injections or by implanting small amounts under the skin. Sometimes oestrogen is ~pplied to the vagina in the form of a cream or necessary, but this may not be effective in the control of severe hot flushes. A doctor may advise against hormone replacement therapy if the patient has a history of menstrual disorders, liver disease or a family history of cancer of the womb or breasts. It is now thought that it is safer for treatment with oestrogen to be combined with treatment with progesterone, but this leads to shedding of the lining of the womb each month, and this may not be acceptable to a woman who has been pleased to stop having periods and now faces the depressing prospect of having them return in exchange for losing the hot flushes. Also, statistics show that the risk of complications involving thrombosis (clot­ting of blood in arteries or veins) is multiplied about eight times when a woman takes oestrogen, either in the con­traceptive pill or to prevent hot flushes, and also continues to smoke. Outlook It is difficult to predict just how long hot flushes will continue, as various factors are involved and it differs from one woman to another. Usually hot flushes diminish in severity and number within two or three years of the menopause­ that is, from the time the periods stop completely. The treatment time for the use of hormone replacement therapy is initially one year and as long as there is medical supervision with follow-up examinations and tests, there is little risk of serious side-effects and symptoms should diminish quite considerably during this time. Very occasionally hot flushes persist into the 60s, but more intensive treat­ment can usually bring even these under control, although it may be necessary to continue with hormone replacement treatment for years if it is considered suitable for the patient.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A – Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS -   DOCTOR’S ANSWERS – PART 27, HOT FLUSHES, Page 746 – 747.   (Sorry - Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out), Without love, care and affection the world would be a miserable place to live in. Tenderness expressed between people is not only a pleasure to give and receive but also satisfies a deep and fundamental human need. Q My husband has just become unemployed. He is very edgy. How can I help? A The uncertainty of unemployment is hard for anyone to cope with. Until recently a job will have absorbed most of his time and energy. Now he is flung back on his own resources with the added worries of loss of income and trying to get another job. It is a time for special patience and understanding on your part to help your husband adjust and regain his confidence. Small gestures of affection and tenderness will reassure him that he is still loved and needed and help him through this difficult period. Q My wife is often tearful before her period and we frequently have rows. Can I prevent this? A Because of the change in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle many women feel tense and irritable, less attractive and lacking in energy in the days just before menstruation. You can't alter your wife's hormone pattern but you can accept it and try to be as loving as possible during these days, even if she seems unreasonable. Get her to put her feet up, cherish and spoil her a bit. And give her a hug if she tries to argue. She's not feeling herself any more than you are when you are feeling ill. Q Should I worry that we can't afford to buy our small children many toys? AThe love and affection you give your children is far more important than anything you can buy them. Besides, children don't need expensive toys. They need you to playwith them and you can all have a lot offun with bits of junk such as egg cartons, cotton reels and big cardboard boxes. Buy some paints and glue and see what you can invent together. The children will remember doing these sorts of things with you with far more affection than if you had bought them an expensive toy. We all have a gentle, tender side to O'.lr personalities, and a need to gi\'e a'1G. receive affection, but some people haH' far greater difficulty in showing this tl:a:-. others. They may want to express tr.e:r tenderness to those they care about. J'-,= they feel awkward and embarrassed aE'::: have no idea how to go about it. They 'ktc::: help and encouragement from those "'.':".': are close to them, since tenderness :s a:-, essential part of loving, and sometr.::-,~ we need to show in all our dee::tc: relationships. The real person Tenderness is a way of expressi:-.;'-'" feelings of warmth and caring for aE: =:... tc,' person as they inwardly are, not as =~ present themselves to the outside \'.: ,:: We may feel protective to\vards t:-,tc:,' vulnerability, affectionate about t:".tc:r idiosyncrasies and close to the rea: °tc.: which they have allowed us to see, Tenderness can sometimes seer..: t: ':tc far more deeply felt than, for exaE:::,7, tie pride we might have in our children or the sexual attraction we may feel to\-;ards a partner. And because we all \,'a:1: to be loved and understood for ,'m'se:';es. and not for what we look like or - ... hat \';e haw achieved, it is immensely reass'.lr:ng \\'hen others feel tender and a:tect:onate towards us. It gives us st:"tcEgth to get over hurts and dis­a:J::,ointments and fresh energy to face the ' .. ;,:.rld. Life without tenderness would be a ';er\' empty existence indeed. A loving childhood It is far easier to show tenderness to iJthers and to acknowledge our own needs for caring and affection if we have had a :)ving and secure childhood. We are then Affection, love, caring, warmth - call it :.;hat J!OU will- the essential need to communicate tenderness is fundamental to all relationships. A man and his baby, young hn'ers and an elderly person alone all nad to sho7.:': and share this feeling. able to act spontaneously in appropriate circumstances and because of the naturalness of our behaviour, others are likely to respond. A new baby responds with pleasure to gentle, caressing handling and a soft, loving voice. He is frightened by abrupt or rough movements and by loud or sudden noises. Gradually he becomes deeply attached to the person, usually the mother, who offers him most tenderness and affection. And his deep need for this kind of caring is clear. He does not become attached to her because she washes and feeds him and keeps him warm. If someone else took over these duties he would not transfer his affection to them. He becomes attached to his mother because she cuddles and plays with him and giws hi:n the tenderness TENDERNESS and emotional security he needs. Sadly, however, there are some babies whose parents do not realize that they need loving right from the very beginning. Because they are not shown tenderness and affection these babies do not learn how to respond. The parents, then faced with an unresponsive child, feel uncertain and unconfident about handling him. If they then try to be affectionate and the child cries or ignores them, this unexpected behaviour may make them feel too dis­couraged to persist and the opportunity to build a close, tender relationship with their child is lost. A child who has not been loved and cuddled and shown physical affection and tenderness, will not have learned to respond and will have less confidence in this side of his nature as he grows up. He may appear to react coldly to displays of affection from those who are fond of him, not because he doesn't care, but because he is puzzled as to what is expected of him. Will a similar show of affection on his part be welcomed or rebuffed? Someone who is used to giving and receiving affection since babyhood, on the " other hand, knows with confidence that .~ probably 75 per cent of the time it is ~ welcome, and when it's not it doesn't ~ really matter anyway. s We tend, as we grow older, to put a 2 premium on words. We listen carefully to ~ what people tell us about their ideas and feelings and come to conclusions accor­dingly. But there are means of communi­cation which are non-verbal which can tell us just as much about a person and his or her feelings towards us, if only we can delve back into our childhood and remem­ber how to read the signs learnt in the early, non-verbal years. Children are quick to interpret facial expressions and gestures. They pick up immediately whether a person is tense and angry, however well thpy appear to be hiding it, or whether they are relaxed and approachable. Quite rightly, they realize that an affectionate gesture is often more important than what someone is actually saying to them. It indicates how that person feels towards them at the time and invites them to be relaxed and open in return. For adults, too, tenderness and affection are ways of communicating feelings which are hard to put into words. In long-term relationships Of course, tenderness and caring are the qualities that enable a relationship to last. Physical attraction, intelligence or common interests may originally draw people together, but by themselves they won't take a relationship very far. The partners need to be aware of both their Sometimes, people find it hard to communicate with others much older or younger than themselves. Their lives would be richer if they made the effort to bridge the so-called generation gap. own and each other's sensitive and emotional side and allow opportunity for expressing it. It's all too easy to see one partner as immensely capable and rational and forget that they still have needs for tenderness and reassurance. A woman who has brought up a large family, coped with a job and with a succession of crises no longer seems as vulnerable as 20 years before, but she is just as much in need of caring and affection as ever. Similarly, the highly competitive man, who seems outwardly assured and confident, needs to show the caring side of his nature and to be able to admit to his anxieties and insecurities. Tenderness and affection thrive with use. The more you are able to show your affection. the more affectionate you will feel. But at times. of course. we have more outlets for our feelings than at others. Parents \\'ho haw delighted in small children. a!\\"ays \,"anting to be hugged and kissed. climbing on their laps and draping themse!\"es round them. find it hard to adjust as the children become older and more independent and shy away from such demonstrati'"eness. They will still need tenderness and affection. but it will have to be far more carefull~" timed and discreetly expressed. Those who have had a close. affection­ate long-term relationship will feel emotionally at a loss if their partner is absent for some period. This is much more acute in the case of a bereavement. Then hugs and affection from children and friends can be more reassuring and comforting than words of sympathy. Teaching tenderness Sometimes it seems as ifthose who have difficulty in expressing affection are caught in a vicious circle. Because they are undemonstrative and fail to respond, those who care about them may feel so hurt and rejected that they stop dis­playing their own affection and this makes it harder than ever for those with such problems to learn. It takes a very persistent and perceptive person to break down the barriers and enable such people to feel safe enough to explore that side of their nature. If you have a partner who you believe is basically caring but finds it hard to express affection you may be able to encourage him or her by discussing your needs. Tell your partner exactly what needs to be done - ask for the simple acts, like a hug, a kiss or sitting and holding hands. If necessary give justifications by saying why these things are so pleasing. It must be reassuring for your partner to find such an easy way of pleasing you, and once the barriers are broken he may be able to become more spontaneously affectionate himself. But of course people do vary enormously in their needs for affection and their capacIty to give it. If you are someone who needs constant physical contact and demonstrativeness you may be in for a lot of heartache if you select a genuine. self-contained type, satisfied with the odd h G2: Sex Of course, affectioc ar.d tenderness are what transform sex :\':,r:: a mechanical performance in v.'::-.:cr, eitr.er partner may feel they have beer Gsed. into something personal and deer;h satisfying. Unfor· tunately mec a"e :,:":e!'c too anxious at first about their prowess, not realizing :i2.: \"omen are more responsi"e to teClderness and caring than displays of virilin. That is why it can often take as much as a veal' for couples to adapt to each other's needs. \Vben both are relaxed and able to display affection, whatever is los: ir. initial excitement is more than made up far by caring and tenderness. We all ha"e 8e!':ods affeeling sexually inactive. PerhaDs '.':e are worried about work or reco"erir,g from an illness. But continuing to s".o'.': atTection and tender· It is obvious that children will only learn to express tenderness as a natural emotion if they are encouraged by example. A vulnerable neu' baby, a dependent and easily frightened pet, a close playmate - all these are natural outlets for the expression of this most human offeelings. ness to our partner during this time is particularly important. As long as the partner still feels loved and desirable, and realizes that the lack of drive is not because they have ceased to be attractive to us, they will be able to be more patient and understanding. New baby Everyone in the family needs tenderness and affection at the birth of a new baby, not just the baby himself The mother will be feeling particularly vulnerable after the emotional and physical changes that have taken place during pregnancy and the birth. She will obviously be tired and TENDERNESS perhaps depressed and cert2.i,.lc: need gentle handling and unders:a.,.:L,.~ support for several months. The father may be worried abo,~t a possible change in role and adcied responsibility. He will need under· standing and encouragement to feel a­fully involved in the baby from the start as the mother is. And of course ifthere are other children in the family they "'ill need special love, attention and affection if they are not to feel jealous and supplanted by the new arrival. Friends and relatives can be helpful here in concentrating on reassuring older children how lovable they are.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 85, TENDERNESS, Page 2350 to 2353.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out) , As an insidious component of modern life, tension C2:1 occur during even the most mundane everyday aCriYlnE'S. Prolonged tension can lead to stress, that all too potent cause of serious physical and mental illness. Q Is tension always a destructive fo rce? A Not at ai' I ~ 'ei'v a construct. '"u-"ulating resoureefui~""" e~c ~.8ntiveness, and biologce . :::,::" r"a to promote survival. 1;\:yetty dull stiek-in-tho-~  :. ~,out tension in ou r lives:.::: ~d probably not survive.,.thout it to stimulct"~,, ,,~'sss that is destru::::~." S~Sion Q Is there any specific type of tension that is particularly insidious today? A Yes. " ;).,nd poisonous­rat~,::'e~ ~sidious-isthe right:,:: '~ :J8cause it is almost certai~ ', s:::~sble for more deatl-s ~~ ~e~v a more obvious cause. C::::" ~~e most serious featvE's::::" day is that it has becc~ E' e ~ :::st mpossible to achs. E' E' ordinary things like trave~;:: '..,ork, getting the shocc~g j-:ving the car, using a bus or ~'e~::Je~tlng repairs done -the list is e,aiess - without becoming un.\' involved in a nightmarish INec c" hassles every day of our lives. Tl-ess:::ompletely non-productive cor" :::~s give rise to high levels of ter,s :::~ "c- which, unless we are prece',:::: ~:::ose our temper twenty times e ce, ~,ere is no outlet, and whd' erE' . E'" cetent progenitors of stress Q What defences do people have against the build-up of tension? A Fortu.r ecE'. "E'. era. II First, the exarrc e e~c E'~couragement of havino h::wc E'::: C E'roS success"~. ~ Cces-. allied to the skills cf erE'" c::-:c_ e-t'ade Next, the cor" :::E'r CE' ~~e~::~S is able to sueeee::: e -E'S~ doing so. Third. ~::: c" e'.oldanee,                                 adaptao I:::. e~c E'"cecE'                                 recreation - all of thesE' ~ _ ~!zed to the full whene.E" C- r;: gets roughl Finally, the-s Of sOmebOdY ~:::t orly in lending a SV~ cece - c Jt also in helping to K~;:s ~ csrsoeetive and in giving SCJ. cess::: advice Tension and strain, in the emotional or mental sense rather than in the mecha­nical or physical, are often spoken of as though they were indistinguishable from stress. In fact, not only are they quite distinct, but the differences between them are very important. Tension and strain are things that happen to all of us, usually every day. They are the load, the pressure, the effect that is imposed on us by the inevitable confrontations that sometimes occur between us and our en­vironment in terms of the things, the people and the circumstances around us. Stress, however, is a disease which occurs when the tension or strain becc::,:, e­than we can cope with and ~::",-­breakdown in health develop~. Causes of tension Tensions occur in our lives for a variety 'J: reasons and in a variety of ways. The most basic and intense are the result of situations that inhibit expression of our instincts. This old gentleman's worry beads have obviously done him a power of good! In fact, it is well known that 'having something to do with your hands' can reduce tension. TENSION Q Do all people respond to tension in the same way? A No, they do not. One of the fascinating things about tension is the way in which its effects vary so widely. A challenge or conflict which turns out to be the stimulus that is the making of one person may spell doom, disaster and breakdown to another. In general, response to an episode of tension depends both on its intensity and duration, and on the personality and outlook of the person concerned. Q What happens if a person is subjected to too much tension to cope with? A If the tension proves to be too much for the person's 'coping' mechanisms a situation of stress will develop. This will lead to some form of stress illness or disorder such as raised blood pressure, heart attack, peptic ulcer, depression, addiction or a nervous breakdown. Q How does everyday tension turn into stress? A Simply, when there is more of it than the particular person can cope with. Tension or arousal is intended to lead to - and have its natural outlet in - some form of action or performance. If that does not happen - perhaps because the action is blocked in some way, or because the amount of tension is greater than the opportunity for actiVities in which it can be either utilized or 'worked off' - then it will build up, like steam in a kettle, until the lid blows off. This may result in something as serious as a coronary thrombosis, stroke or suicide. But the solution can be simple, just get a rest and change down to a more relaxed attitude and a full recovery can soon be made. Otherwise, a vicious circle can rapidly build up in which, as a person's ability to cope with his tension becomes inadequate, he pushes himself harder to try and achieve results that he cannot attain. Often, the person who is most in need of taking a rest­ the workaholic - finds it hardest to slow down and take a look at the problems that are facing him. The universal, primary instincts are concerned with self-protection and pre­servation of life, obtaining food and drink, and reproduction. These are re­garded as the primary instincts, since without them and the driving force that they supply, both we as individuals and mankind as a species would certainly perish. These, then, are the things which in most of us are inborn as driving forces that override all else. The secondary instincts are not quite so demanding as the primary, and are not so vital to man's survival. But for most people, they are vital to happiness. The first of them is the power instinct, which drives people to be competitive and am­bitious and to try to gain positions of superiority over others in terms of achievement, wealth, position or title. The second is the herd instinct, which leads people to think and act in groups and communities. Finally, denied by some psychologists, is the spiritual instinct which urges people towards goals which are non-selfish, idealistic and, at least materially, unrewarding. These primary and secondary instincts constitute the major basic driving forces in most people's lives; satisfying them without conflict or restraint gives people a sense of security and emotional hap­piness and contentment. If. on the other hand, the following of their demands is made impossible or difficult, mental tension and pain result. And this tension, if it is severe enough, will lead to some form of mental or physical stress illness. The likelihood of this occurring depends on the extent to which the instinct concerned has been frustrated, the mental 'strength' and capacity for adapting to a heavy tension load of the person involved, and whether or not an alternative area of satisfaction is available. Many feelings which appear as tension are related to particular instincts. Fear, for instance, is associated with concern about self-preservation and security; anger with the need for confrontation and combat; loneliness with the desire for company and protection of the 'herd'; appetite and hunger with the need for regular nourishment; sexual desire with the need to reproduce future generations. Thus, the satisfaction of instincts is associated with and results in pleasur­able, happy feelings; while their frustra­tion results in tension and unpleasant, painful feelings. Conflict But frustration of instincts and other desires leads not only to feelings of ten­sion and unhappiness, but also to some­thing which frequently accompanies tension - conflict. Tension and conflict, though born of frustration and dissatis­faction, are nevertheless the funda­mental mainsprings of human endeavour and progress. They occur whenever what we want to do is not immediately pos­sible. They can result from a wide variety of circumstances. What we want to do may involve us in a collision course with another person after the same goal. Or it may be incompatible with the interests of the herd or the rules of the community in which we live. Or it may represent a struggle with some limitation imposed by our own bodies such as illness or disa­bility, or with an obstacle in the world around us, such as drought or flood. Or the tension may be the result of the demands of rival instincts and emotions that are competing with each other for domination within ourselves. There are four possible outcomes to a situation of tension conflict: we may be successful and victorious; we may decide to submit; we may try to escape; or the tension may continue and interfere with the stability of our lives - in the form of stress - indefinite> 3Jr:':on nor­mally occurs \\'Jf' that to continue the conr'                 u!er m our interests, It ma           with    an element of u'cc f,:,;' instance,         most membe"~ :':,ubmit easily to the ;''::e,'d and never get into troct ~ e c,'-e always at odds and ir~ c:;c:" ~L:t, Generally, however. -' ',- ~ not submit easily '~'':'::e for new ideas and pro"rt, -"cc C- are driven to experin:e~,: ' possibilities_ Reaction" to ten"ion In all t;",ecc-          ' tension there are three e>,o-c : 1',:,e: those that we                can aeee:::      those that seem                     excess: ated: and those that All too oftEn, thE apparently simple events ofdaily lifE ,~an lEad ro a build-up in tension that nobod.\ nEds right}. The tension inherent in playing a skilled game for high stakes shrr..:.s up on~\ roo clearly on the face of the bril/zanr snooker player, world champion A,iEx Higgins (below). are definitely not normal and represent some form of mental illness. The dif­ference between them, however, is really only one of degree. The response which occurs depends partly on the importance and intensity ofthe conflict and partly on the personality and mentality of the person concerned. Thus it is not regarded as abnormal for us generally to submit to the conventions of our community with regard to accep­table behaviour. But we would regard persistent feelings of inferiority, un­worthiness, grovelling or guilt over small matters as inappropriately excessive. However, manifestations of persistent depression, prolonged melancholy or feelings of persecution are viewed as being definitely abnormal. In the realm of escape as a response to tension we regard jokes, hobbies, holidays, and fantasy as in plays and films as acceptable; we find heavy drinking, drug taking and out­bursts of temperamental behaviour ex­cessive; and we consider alcoholism, permanent running away, and suicide attempts as definitely abnormal. The kinds of situation that are most likely to give rise to tension in our lives today are quite different to the very much more basic and immediate threats of ~ hunger, thirst, cold, lack of shelter, S. fighting over food and rivalry for partners ~ to mate with that were sources of emo­~, tional and physical conflict in our distant ~ ancestors' time. But they operate and ~ affect us in very much the same way - and 2 we need to be able to cope with them IlO ::i' less effectively if we are going to survive.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 86, TENSION, Page 2357 to 2359.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out), Touch is so fundamental to life that most of us never think of how the many sensations we feel are produced: how, for instance, we can tell silk from sandpaper, or recognize an object simply by the way it feels on the skin. Q Why do babies touch everything around them as well as looking at them? A As babies we train our brains to be able to match the sight of an object with its feel. When older, these earlier experiences enable us to predict what the texture of an object or surface is without touching. Q When someone has had a stroke and is paralyzed down one side, does this mean that he or she will have lost the sense of touch on that side? A Not necessarily. Some people who have been paralyzed by a stroke will have retained their sense of touch on that side, provided the damage has been confined to the movement control parts of the brain. If the area of damage is sufficiently large to have involved the touch analysers in the brain or their connections, then the sense of touch will be damaged. Q I have noticed that on very cold days my sense of touch is poor. Why is this? A In very cold weather two things are working against the touch receptors just below the skin in the fingers. First, the cold itself will be reducing their efficiency, and second, blood will have been diverted away from the skin in order to minimize heat loss; this relatively poor blood supply will further impair the ability of these nerve endings to send concise messages to your brain. Q Is it true that blind people have a better sense of touch than the sighted? A A blind person will have the same equipment in his or her nervous system for touch perception. What makes blind people able to use it more effectively than those with full sight is the practice that this sense has had in the absence of sight. The brain has come to rely on touch to a much greater extent, and so the analysis of touch has become more efficient, enabling, for example, the rapid reading of Braille. Touch is one of the first ways in which young babies explore their world, and it remains our most intimate way of rela­ting to our environment. It is through a wide range of receptors in our skin, sen­si ti ve to different types of pressure, that we are continually able to monitor our immediate surroundings and keep our brains 'in touch' with the surfaces on which we sit, the objects we grasp, and so on. However, our sensation of touch is complex and is therefore sensitive to disturbances in many parts of the ner­vous system. least sophisticated in structure and rapidly stop firing if the hair continues to be stimulated. Receptors found in greater numbers in the hairless part ofthe skin. for example on the fingertips and lips, are formed into tiny discs. Because the nerve fibres are embedded within these disc~ they respond more slowly to pressure and continue to fire when the pressure i~ maintained. Other more structurally complicated receptors are formed by many membranes being wrapped around a nerve ending like an onion skin, ane give responses to more maintainee pressure. In addition, all the receptor~ tend to be influenced as to what in­formation they send into the nervou~ system by the temperature at which the:. are operating. This explains why ow sense oftouch tends to be impaired in cold weather. The distribution of the different typeo of touch receptors reflects their particulc: job. The receptors around the base ofb06: hair send messages from large areas :: The sensory receptors Just below the surface of the skin there are many nerve. endings whose varying degrees of sensitivity allow the nervous system to be supplied with different types of touch sensations. Wrapped around the base of the fine hairs of the skin are the free nerve end­ings which respond to any stimulation of the hair. These touch receptors are the The touch receptors in our skin are sensitive enough to respond to the gentlest stroking of a blade of grass. From an early age we use our sense of touch to help us to become acquainted with the shape and feel of things around us - even a familiar object like Mum! the skin about the pressure stimulating them. They rapidly stop their flow of information once we have been warned of the presence of objects, for example, an insect on the skin. On the hairless skin the more sophisticated receptors give continuous information, allowing objects to be felt as the brain assembles this informHtion into a coherent picture. Parietal lobe Cerebral Touch pathways cortex   Touch receptors in the skin relay their messages to the cerebral cortex via two specific pathways in the spinal cord: one for well-localized touch sensations; the other more diffuse touch.   Hairless skin Midbrain Merkel's disc Iwell·localized touch) Analysis in the spinal cord Some of the fibres conveying touch in­formation pass into the spinal cord and, without stopping, go straight up to the brain-stem. These fibres deal mainly with sensations of pressure, particularly a specific point of pressure. They there­fore need to send their messages rather directly to the higher centres ofthe brain, so that this well-localized sensation can Brainstenl be assessed without confusion from any analysis in the spinal cord. Other nerve fibres bringing informa­tion of more diffuse touch enter the grey matter of the spinal cord, and there meet a network of cells which perform an initial analysis of their information. This is the same area which receives messages from the pain receptors in the skin and elsewhere. The meeting in the spinal cord of messages dealing with both touch and Spinal cord pain allows for the mixture of these two sensatioris and explains such events as the relief of painful stimuli by rubbing. This spinal cord analysis filters the Seeing is believing, but touching is twice the fun when you come face-to-face with a 'real-live' woolly sheep for the very firsr time (top left). The various touch receptors in our skin aTE very discerning. If a shape is drawn on thE hand,fur instance, we can often tell what ir is without looking (top). This is obvious ly important to someone who is blind, as the ability to define shapes is fundamental to reading Braille (above). We can all get enjoyment from the way " things feel- from the delicious sensation 0.1 i kneading soft, pliable modelling clay (lefr ~ to the decidedly more delicate sensuousnt 5 of soft, tactile material worn next to the ski:. (far left). sensations which are then sent upwards to the brain. The grey matter of the spinal cord here acts as an electronic gate, so that pain information can be suppressed by the advent into the cord of certain types of touch impulse, limiting the amount of trivial information that needs to be transmitted to the higher centres. This division of the touch pathways to the brain into two streams - one of which goes fairly directly up to the brain-stem and the other which is first analysed by the cells of the spinal cord - enables the fine discriminating aspects of touch to be preserved. We can, therefore, estimate accurately the amount of pressure in a touch and its position, but if the pressure is too great or too sharp. the pain ana­lysers become inyalwd through the con­nections in the spinal cord and tell us that the touch is painful as well. The sensory sorting house Whether the tauch sensations from the skin have came by the more direct route or after analysis in the spinal cord, they eventually end in the campact knot of grey matter deep in the centre of the brain, called the thal2mus. The direct toucr. fibres \\'ill have al­ready relayed once in the brain-stem and then will haw crassed a\'er to the other side, streaming ta' the thalamus in a compact bundle. H.e 'Other fibres will have crossed O\'er to the appasite side of the spinal cord afte,' their relay in the grey matter there: SD all 'Our touch sen­sations fram 'One side 'Of the body are ~. analysed by appasite sides 'Of the brain. ~ In the thalamus ~hese pieces of in­j formation from \'2riaus different types of ~ receptor in the ski:cl are assembled and ; co-ordinated. This e::-.ables the brain's if. highest centres i:cl ~l-.e cerebral cortex to put together a picture 'Of the sensations of touch of which \\'e became conscious. The final analYSis The area of the braiL \\'hich enables the complex array 'Of touch sensations entering the neryaus s\'stem to be con­sciously perceiwd is the middle section of the cerebral cortex. Like all other sensory information, touch is analysed by the cortex in a series 'Of steps. each increasing the complexity 'Of the sensory perception. From the thalamus. the raw data is projected to a narr,,\\' strip in the front of the parietal lobes. This primary sensory area of the cortex processes the infarmatian before passing it on to the secandary and tertiary sen­sory areas. In these latter areas the full picture ofthe site. type and significance of the touch sensations \ve feel is produced and correlated along with memories of previous sensatians. as well as sensory stimuli coming via the ears and eyes. The latter co-ordination is achieved easily since the areas for vision and hearing back on to the areas for touch. The touch sensations are also, and very importantly, co-ordinated at this point with the sensations of what position our limbs, joints and digits are in: this is of importance since it enables us to deter­mine an object's size and shape and helps us to distinguish one object from another. Problems Damage to the nervous system at many different levels can alter our ability to feel and notice things that touch our skin. How this affects us depends to a large extent on the exact place in the nervaus system that the damage occurs. Damage to the peripheral neD-es. which may happen in diabetes 'Or in alcoholism, to give twa camman examples, can affect the sense 'Of tauch. However it takes quite extensive damage for the sense of touch to be lost completely or severely diminished. Often people with such disorder'l notice pins and needles in their hands and feet for some time before any alteration in their sense of touch. The ability of the fingers to make fine touch discrimination may be involved, and sufferp~'s may report that it feels as if they have gloves on all the time. Instead of being lost or diminished, the sense of touch can also become distorted as a result of damage to the peripheral nerves, so that a sufferer may say that smooth surfaces feel like sandpaper or warm surfaces feel hot. Much greater distortion of the sense of touch, however, arises from disease in the spinal cord, for example in multiple sclerosis. The cross connections which arise in the spinal cord ifit is diseased or even pressed upon from the outside produce distortions oftouch which can be quite disabling and unpleasant. Apart from noticing a feeling of numbness, the hands may have lost their ability to make properly co-ordinated touch perception, for example in picking the correct coin from a pocket, or the feet may feel as if they are walking on cotton wool instead of firm ground. Similar types of symptoms can arise from damage to the same touch pathways through the brain-stem all the way to the thalamus. Thalamic damage, which happens after strokes, for example, can produce bizarre alterations of touch so that a simple pinprick produces un­pleasant spreading electric shock-like sensations or the gentle stroking of a finger may be felt as an unpleasant burning spreading over the skin. Damage to the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex, common in strokes and tumours of the brain, may disrupt touch sensations in other ways. If the thalamus is still intact (it is often involved in the disease as well) then the touch will be felt, but the localization of the touch will not be accurate - it may, for example, be felt on the other side of the body. If the parietal lobe is not functioning, the cor­relation of different types of sensation will not occur. For instance, usually, when the hand or skin is drawn upon, a person will not have trouble in distinguishing letters and numbers, but someone with parietal lobe damage will not recognize the shape, although he or she will be aware that a touch has occurred.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 88, TOUCH, Page 2420 to 2423.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out)   , We all know of people who are allergic to something. but the term total allergy syndrome has recently been coined to describe an allergic response to 'everything'. Does this condition really exist or is it a misnomer? Q Is total allergy syndrome a condition that appears suddenly, or does it develop over a period of time? A People with extensive allergies usually displayed some allergic tendencies in childhood, suffering from conditions such as eczema, asthma or hay fever. The number of foods and other environmental substances that they are allergic to may increase as they grow older. This of course produces a tremendous strain on even the most robust personality. It is hardly surprising that in some people other symptoms and patterns of behaviour which are not due to immune problems start to occur and these can be highly distressing Q How common is total allergy syndrome? A Doctors on the whole do not regard total allergy syndrome as a separate disease in itself, although there certainly are extreme forms of allergic susceptibility. The term 'total allergy' is a misnomer, since even the most severely affected patients can tolerate certain foods. But however the disease is classified, it is clear that only a very few people with allergic tendencies ever develop a sensitivity to more than one or two substances. Q Is total allergy syndrome a purely '20th century' disease as people have said? A People who have multiple allergies are sometimes said to be 'allergic to the 20th century'. That does not necessarily mean that severe allergy never existed before: its apparent novelty owes much to the fact that a term has only recently been coined by the media to describe it. In spite of this, however, it is possible to expect the increased numbers of additives in the food we eat, or the wide range of cosmetics available, to cause an increase in the incidence of allergic disease, if only because there are now many more substances for people to be allergic to. Sufferers with what is called total allergy seem to become severely ill when exposed to any of a wide range of substances in their environment. Causes, symptoms and dangers All types of allergic disease are a result of a defect in the body's immune system. When a substance recognized as 'foreign' enters the body. it provokes the pro­duction of substances called antibodies. When the foreign substance enters the body again, the antibodies bind to the intruder, rendering the body immune. Unfortunately. some people form anti­bodies to quite harmless substances, and the binding of antibody to intruder may inappropriately trigger off the release of a number of other chemicals concerned with the body's defence. These produce unpleasant effects such as asthma, runny nose, skin rashes and vomiting. Most people with an allergic predis­position become sensitized to just one or two substances. and their symptoms on re-exposure are generally quite mild. In the more severe cases of allergy, though, not only are the s:l11ptoms more alarm­ing, with such things as joint pains and bleeding from the large bowel, but people may become sensitive to a variety of substances. particularly foods. However. some symptoms in the so-called total allergy syndrome are ,,~:: likely to happen as a result of imIC':.lI:;:' disorders. In particular, allergy does no: make people lose consciousness, although it may certainly cause headaches and a disabling sense of ill-health. There is also an alarming range of substances that can produce allergies. and in the case of food allergy it is the rule rather than the exception to be allergic to more than one food. It seems very likely that multiple food allergy is at the basis of 'total allergy'. Yet some sections of the medical profession are sceptical. It is hardly surprising that some people may suffer from the stress of the situation, with the result that anxiety symptoms occur which are not directly related to any action of the immune system. Treatment It is very difficult to help people whose disease has made such an impact on their lives that they are thought to suffer from the 'total allergy syndrome'. Drugs have only a limited place in the treatment of allergy, and the basis of treating the food allergies is to identify the foods respon­sible and exclude them from the diet. Because she suffers from 'total allergy syndrome', Amanda Strang has retreated to the relative safety of her own home.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 88, TOTAL ALLERGY SYNDROME, Page 2419.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out), The power of one mind to communicate directly with another without the aid of the five senses. Scientific proof for the existence of such powers is, however, difficult to obtain. Q I have heard people talk about ESP. What exactly does it stand for? A ESP stands for extrasensory perception - that is, knowledge which is acquired by means other than through the five senses It is also sometimes referred to as psychic power or paranormal activity. The term ESP is generally held to cover three main phenomena said to occur without the intervention of the senses or any previous knowledge. These are: telepathy, or the awareness of the thoughts or feelings of another person, perhaps at some distance; clairvoyance, or the visualization of an object or event out of sight as it is or as it is happening; and precognition, the foreseeing of an event in some detail before it takes place. Another ability sometimes included under the heading is psychometry, orthe ability to draw information about a person from some Inanimate object connected with him, such as a watch or a ring Q My friend and I spend a lot of time together and find we are frequently thinking the same things. Is this telepathy? A It may just be that you have grown to think very like one another because you share so many everyday experiences and conversations. Sometimes we can anticipate how another person will react to a situation and even the words they will use because we know them so well. Real telepathy is very hard to test. If you are interested in performing some experiments you can get a special pack of cards which will help you. Q I dreamt of a flood and a few days later there was one near where my parents live. Was this precognition? A Many drearY'ls ~:c~ seem precognit;.;o coincidental If t ~a::: ::::?:?~ "S ~ heavily you may rs.:? ::::?:?~ :.C about the possibii·t ::" a " ::::::: anyway - hence yov:::":?a~~ ... ~st about all your dreams c" :? :?~~s which have never actua. ~s <:? place? Just occasionally, you may have the strong feeling that someone you are close to emotionally is thinking about you, or that something has happened to him ­even though he is far away. You check, find it to be true and you wonder if it is an example of telepathy. Sometimes, too, it happens that you are considering telephoning someone you haven't spoken to for a long time and just as you are about to dial the telephone i'ings with a call from that very person; or you have an unusual idea which the per~ son you are talking to expresses the moment before you. Of course, all these occurrences could be ascribed to chance. We all conveniently forget the many times we were wrong or when such coinci ~ dences did not take place. Do we all have telepathic powers? There do seem to be some people with an extra sensitivity to what others are thinking and feeling at long distance and Dr Carl Sargent of Cambridge University prepares a subject for telepathic testing. The machine produces 'white noise', thus obliterating all disturbing sounds. who have come to rely on what they call their 'impressions', even if they cannot produce a rational explanation for what they have experienced. Some believe that we all have such a power buried in us but that we have mainly lost the ability to use it because there has been little need for it in the kind of world we live in. They point out that young children generally rely more heavily on intuition and are more recep~ tive to moods and atmospheres than adults because it is often all the infor~ mation they have to go on. Later. whe,~ they begin to acquire rational explar:.­at ions for events and behaviour :hev :: so: confidence in these intuitiw ~y .• ,'o:~­which almost always dirrjr:.is:". So :=-.7:' grow older, D. D. Home (top), a well-known Scots medium, held seances for many distinguished Europeans. He was expelled from Rome for sorcery in 1864 but subsequently found scientific approval in Britain. A classic test once widely used by scientists to try and determine telepathic powers involves Zener cards (above). Each card is printed with a symbol, which a 'sender' attempts to transmit to a 'receiver'. In a more modern experiment, a sender draws a picture which a receiver tries to reproduce. A typical result is shown right: the drawing transmitted is on the left; that received is on the right. Scientific testing There have been many attempts to test the powers of telepathy scientifically. One method which has been widely used is called the Ganzfeld technique. The as­sumption behind these experiments is that a person is likely to be more receptive to telepathic communication if distracting noises and visual stimuli can be excluded, leaving the subject's mind completely free to relax. In a typical Ganzfeld experiment two people are used as subjects, one to 'send' messages and the other to 'receive' them. They are each placed in rooms some dis­tance apart with no means of communi- cation between them. The 'receiver' has his eyes covered and through earphones hears 'white noise' - a soft, unobtrusive mixture of all sound frequencies. A red light in the room produces a pinkish background light; the area may also be surrounded by earthed wire mesh to keep out radio and television signals. English twins Freda and Greta Chaplin cannot bear to be separated; the extent of their interdependence includes speaking the same words simultaneously. This trait astounds and baffles everyone with whom they come into contact. Unfortunately for science, no-one has yet been able to investigate their means of communication, which is possibly due to telepathy. The 'sender', on the other hand, is not shielded in any way because it appears that the sending process is more suc­cessful when the sender is alert and re­acting normally. He might be given a series of connected words, for example, randomly selected to prevent the pos­sibility of fraud, and try to transmit thought 'pictures' based on the words. Al­ternatively, he might be given a number of pictures and try to convey what it is that he sees. The receiver tries to pick up the thoughts or images from the sender and then records his description. They can During his lifetime the famous Dutch psychic Gerard Croiset applied himself to helping the police of different countries in their investigations. Much of his work involved the search for missing persons. then be compared by an independent judge to see if there are any similarities. Of course, many scientists are sceptical about such experiments, however scrupu­lously they are carried out. Others are convinced that the large number of suc­cessful results, which they claim are statistically significant, show that tele­pathy does exist as a means of communi­cation. They believe it is an area which merits further research. Clairvoyance and precognition Another faculty which, it is claimed, operates independently of the five senses or of any previous knowledge is clair­voyance. It is the ability to visualize something accurately that is happening out of sight, perhaps many thousands of miles away. A case that is often quoted is that of Emmanuel Swedenborg, the 18th­century Swedish philosopher and scientist. While in Gothenburg he saw in his mind and described a fire 300 miles away in Stockholm. News of the fire - which had broken out at the time he visualized ~ it - reached Gothenburg two days later. E= A variety of tests has been devised to .g try to demonstrate scientifically the ~ existence of clairvoyance. In the 1930s a ~ special pack of cards was designed; these would be shuffled and placed face down­wards on a table without anyone seeing ~ them. The experimental subject would ~ then try to visualize the exact sequence. An allied power is that of precognition, or foreknowledge of an event. It appears that this sometimes takes the form of a vivid dream or very clear mental picture of something taking place. It differs from an imaginative fantasy in its clarity. This is the most difficult power to test unless the person writes or records a description of the event in the presence of an indepen­dent witness. Twins Many identical twill"; ar" ,,:- often seem to be able c ~: ~'.:-­without language. Where: because they have the S2~' . .c make-up or whether they are :r. communicating through telepad'"c ~' . .c.c~ not at all clear. Certainly a r .. -=.~:' strange things have occurred t': : :.cr.'. twins which to some people see~. ~. than just coincidence. For example, there is the case .: :. 60-year-old brothers, one in Eng-I8.~.::: : one in Australia, who each damage:: :: . .c Achilles tendon in the same we~: .~.-:. ~ perhaps strangest of all, anew ly r:'. ~.::'. c : identical twin living in London v;}-.: '_.' denly developed an agonizing pai:-.r - , side. His wife was contemplating CO": an ambulance when a friend tele:J::". > : to say the twin brother in Wales h8.G_ -' been rushed to hospital for an emer",er. appendix operation. The London t·.' pain then vanished. Recent studies in America of ider.::. twins who were separated at bi,,::". shortly after have thrown up so ;::C.r" coincidences that even the normally S~'-=~' tical have wondered whether there '."­not some other factor at work. One outstanding example is the . :'.e· can pair of twins, both called James. '.':::".' were separated at the age of five ee,> They had each married a girl ca: . .c::' Linda, divorced her and married so;::e:~ . .c called Betty. They had each called :::...-= first son by the same name, had "5~',,~. their boyhood dog the same name. c. .. dayed very close to each other as ad·-=..:' had had similar jobs and the same eE.::r.z and drinking habits, the same iE:-;e~sc' and mannerisms. And when the' ~' . .c­after so many years apart. they ye,'e 8. - . .c to finish each other's sentences. s'~ c were their ways of thinking. Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS, DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 85, TELEPATHY, Page 2337 to 2339. (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the script have been left out) ,       A well-balanced diet will in almost all instances, rule out the need for dietary supplements. Before you stock up on dietary supple­ments, stop to consider whether you could get similar benefits more cheaply by improving your diet. Under normal circumstances, a well­balanced Western diet contains all the necessary vitamins in sufficient quan­tities. Obviously, when you are suffering from certain illnesses, are on a re­stricted diet, are pregnant or breast feeding, extra vitamins may be recom­mended by your ·doctor. Otherwise, extra vitamins are unnecessary and can even be harmful, leading to poisonous overdoses called-hypervitaminosis I products. Ox liver, halibut and cod liver oil are particularly rich sources, as are carrots, tomatoes, spinach and watercress. Avoid taking vitamin !c.. supplements as an excess can cause fragile bones, liver and spleer enlargement and loss of appetite anc possibly even hair. The B vitamins affect blood, skir, nerves and growth, and the way YOlY body uses foods. To get sufficien~ quantities, your diet should regulariy include lean meats and/or pulses, offa fish, wholemeal bread and wholegrair vegetables like spinach. If you feel rur down, nervous, or develop skir ailments, your doctor may recommend a B complex supplement; some people take brewer's yeast, a rich source o~ several B vitamins, for extra energy. A Good Diet Vitamin A is necessary for healthy skin, bones and eyes; you can get enough by eating moderate amounts of dairy Doses of pyridoxine (B6) are used to treat acne, convulsions, premenstrual tension and period pains; both 86 and 812 are prescribed for anaemia. Generally the body quickly excretes any excess vitamin B, but undernourished Jeople should not take vitamin 8, on its Jwn, as this can impair the body's use of :::tner vitamins. vJJ should ensure that your diet::~tars generous daily amounts of ~a~r C-rich foods, as the body cannot 3~::: -et. and it is easily destroyed by ~ ~ e :::ooking and by cigarette smoking. ~ 3 essential for the health of blood, ::::: +eeth, and the body's connective ~ 33_e. ::eaoers, blackcurrants, parsley, :::-,,-;:83 a-occoli and many other fresh ~- ~::: vegetables are good sources, es::e:::" ",vren raw or lightly cooked. --ere 3 -0 conclusive evidence that . ~,,~ ~ ::: ::-events colds, but a 3_::: ot usually harm . . ~,,necessary for strong :::::~ ~e8~-. and prevents rickets in :::- ~s "':::Jnd mainly in fish liver :::.::: <: iver, fatty sea-fish and ~ e-:-:ents should be avoided as s ~;: can cause vomiting, - es. weight loss and calcium ::: s ~sr kidneys and arteries . . ~a~-;s E and K are both connected ,'e ":.,:-,ctioning of the blood. Many :,,~3 are made for vitamin E - ranging::~ \varding off heart attacks to -e e\' "g menopausal symptoms - but ~ c~e ras been proven. Vitamin E occurs - Tany foods, especially in oils of ,,,reatgerm, cottonseed and corn, and 1 oatmeal, margarine, eggs, meat, butter and peas. Vitamin K helps prevent excessive bleeding, Ample quantities can be obtained by eating pig's liver, green leafy vegetables, eggs and milk; supplements are largely unnecessary as the body makes up for any shortage by manufacturing it in the intestines, If you think you are suffering from vitamin deficiency, or that a supplement might help combat a particular ailment, you should consult your doctor. You will  also find it helpful to look at a nutrition ~ manual for the quantities required, how to achieve the correct balance and how  best to prepare food to make full use of the vitamins.   Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 90, LIVE BETTER NATURALLY, GETTING YOUR VITAMINS – NATURE’S WAY, Page 2498.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out) , Some people have difficulty in sleeping soundly, and one of the hypnotic drugs can give them a good night's rest. But it must be prescribed and taken with care. Q Is there a danger in mixing my sleeping pills with a night­time alcoholic drink? A Yes. The effects of alcohol add to the effects of all hypnotic drugs and therefore to take both can produce excessive sedation, which may be dangerous. A (small) bedtime drink taken by itself may be the best form of hypnotic, although, of course, the regular use of alcohol can have its own dangers. Q Are hypnotic drugs dangerous if taken by children? A It is vital that all drugs, but especially sleeping tablets, be kept out of reach of children. Because of their small body size, children can be killed by even quite small overdoses of hypnotic drugs. There are occasions when a mild hypnotic is needed for a short period to correct a difficult sleep pattern in a child, but the dosage prescribed should be very carefully observed Q Are there some hypnotic drugs which make you too drowsy to drive? A Yes. Most of the commonly used hypnotic drugs cause significant drowsiness, lasting for some time after the person appears to have woken from sleep. For this reason anyone taking these drugs should take care not to drive while still under their influence. Q Is it a bad thing to take sleeping pills for years and years? A Yes. Through careless prescribing, many people in the past have become addicted, particularly to the barbiturate group of drugs. The problem is that over a period of time, the effects of a certain dose diminish so that more is required to obtain the required effect. In addition, the type of sleep induced by hypnotic drugs is not as refreshing as natural sleep, and so it is better to use a sleeping pill only for a strictly limited period while steps are taken to find out the causes and treat the fundamental cause of the Insomnia. Sleep difficulties are common and there is a great demand for drugs which will help those who suffer from such problems to have a good night's sleep. Although no hypnotic drug produces normal sleep, some induce sleep that is nearer to natural sleep than others. But some dif­ficulties in sleeping are not likely to be helped by hypnotic drugs at all. Different types of hypnotic drugs There are various types of sleep- inducing drugs available, but they all tend to have side-effects to some degree. Chloral derivatives: Chloral hydrate was one of the earliest drugs to be used specifically as a hypnotic. The original chemical is not much used nowadays, but chloral is the main ingredient in a drug called dichloralphenazone, widely pre­scribed in tablet form and especially use­ful to elderly people. Chloral hydrate it­self is rather irritating to the stomach and even the much less irritating dich­loralphenazone has to be avoided by people who have peptic ulcers or delicate stomachs. This group of drugs has an addictive effect when mixed with alcohol. Barbiturates: These used to be used very widely, but now that there are safer, less addictive drugs available, they are being prescribed less and less: their main use now is in injections to produce general anaesthesia. Barbiturates are significantly habit­forming, even addictive, and they pro­duce quite prolonged 'hangover' effects: anyone who takes them will not be at his or her best for most of the morning after a barbiturate-induced sleep. They are also dangerous in overdose (see Barbiturates, page 1391. Benzodiazepines: These are safe, even in large overdose and, considering how well they work, have remarkably few side-effects, although they may cause nightmares. However, even the benzo­diazepines can be habit-forming, and if they are withdrawn there may be a re­bound in sleeplessness. Other hypnotic drugs: A mixed group of non-barbiturate drugs has largely been replaced by the benzodiazepines. One drug which was popular a few years ago was a mixture of two others: a hypnotic, methaqualone, and a sedative anti­histamine, diphenhydramine. It was potent and effective but very dangerous in overdose. For children, on the rare occasions when they need a drug with some hypnotic effect, the most useful are the sedative antihistamines, including promethazine and trimeprazine, while for elderly people a safe hypnotic drug is chlormethiazole. How hypnotic drugs work The part of the brain responsible for the cycles of sleep and wakefulness is the reticular activating system, a widely spread network of brain cells and their nerve fibres which lace up and down the brain stem (see Brain, pp. 217-191, con­trolling the extent to which the brain is electrically active. Some drugs, such as the barbiturates, suppress the activity of considerable areas of the brain, causing hypnotic effects at low doses and com­plete general anaesthesia at higher doses. Others, such as the benzo­diazepines, do not produce general anaesthesia, even at very high doses. Dangers and side-effects The barbiturates are particularly prone to cause a hangover, and it is dangerous to drive until their effects have quite worn off because co-ordination and reflexes are significantly suppressed. The benzodiazepines were introduced as causing very little of a hangover effect, but, in fact, one of them, nitrazepam, has this side-effect, lasting for up to 20 hours after it is taken. Another serious side-effect occurs in people with chronic chest complaints: many of the hypnotics, especially the barbiturates. will interfere with their breathing in the night, often to a serious extent, and so it is best for them to avoid the use of all hypnotics. Some people are allergic to certain drugs in the hypnotic group. It is not usually possible to predict which one will cause the allergic reaction, but if a person has it to one drug in a particular group of hypnotics, he or she will probably be allergic to chemically similar drugs. The barbiturates can make people­particularly if they are elderly-feel confused, and this can be physically dangerous because it may cause falls. Another problem, again especially of the barbiturates but also of the chloral derivatives, is interaction with other drugs which a person may be taking. It is important for a doctor to know whether a patient is taking an hypnotic drug before prescribing any others. Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A – Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS - DOCTOR’S ANSWERS – PART 28, HYPNOTIC DRUGS, Page 770 – 771. (Sorry - Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the script have been left out) otic drugs, their ~ses and possibl Drug Uses Phenobarluitone Pentobarbitone Hypnotic Qualbarbitone Hypnotic Hypnotic Promethazine Glutethimide Skin rashes Chlormethiazole Hypnotic, trElatrnelnt * Prescribed dosages sh'Juld alw,ays to and 771 , The beauty care we give the face and scalp helps to keep the skin clear and the hair healthy, but we need to supplement this by exercising facial and scalp muscles. We exercise our facial muscles almost every waking moment of the day, but this exercise is not necessarily the most beneficial. Just as movements of the body muscles can result in strain, habi­tual movements of the face can lead to tense areas, giving rise to headaches and other painful symptoms. This can be helped by certain exercise routines. Relaxation is the key. Lie down flat on your back, without a pillow, listening to some soothing music. Close your eyes and concentrate on feeling your facial and scalp muscles. Try to let your neck and jaw go completely slack. The most common areas of tension are at the back of the neck, just where the spine ends; the jaw muscles below the ear; and the centre point between your eyes. If you use your eyes for close work or a great deal of reading, you may also locate tension in the tiny muscles around the eyes, notably at the outer edges. If this tension becomes severe, accompanied by frequent headaches, it may be advisable to consult your doctor or optician. Even people in good health suffer from strain in the facial region, es­pecially when under stress. And though you may not be aware of it, you probably have some small mannerism such as a constant frown or rapid eye movement vyhlchcan lead the muscles to be set into a rigid pattern which encourages wrinkli'Js. A.shortexercise routine performed eY~.ry.day for about ten minutes can be beneficial. Start with relaxation tech­niques, such as sitting comfortably but with your spine straight, and letting your head hang down from the nape of the neck. Slowly turn your head in a circle from right to left, then from left to right. Let your head hang down so that your chin reaches the chest, then lift it back so that your chin points upwards. Re­peat several times. To exercise your facial muscles, sit in front of a mirror. Begin by toning the eyebrow muscles. Lift your eyebrows upwards as far as they can go, then relax and repeat. Follow by knitting the brows together, then releasing them. At each point, it is very important to relax the muscles between tensing them. Your eye muscles can be exercised by first closing the eyes for a few seconds, concentrating on complete freedom from tension. Then screW up the eyes tightly, relax and repeat a few times. Follow by rolling the eyeballs first right and then left, then up and down and finally in a full circle, trying to keep your head still and looking ahead. Next, the mouth and jaw muscles: relaxing your neck, open your mouth as wide as possible, then slowly close it. Then, keeping lips together, stretch your mouth at the sides, relax, repeat. Purse your lips together as if making an '0' then relaxing them. Massage as exercise Massage is an important and simple way to tone the face and scalp. When applying cleanser or soap, massage by placing the cleansing substance on the fingertips and gently stroking it in, always using upwards or circular move­ments. Start from the chin, working up­wards towards the cheekbones; move from the nostrils to the bridge of the nose; stroke outwards from below the eyes towards the hairline above your ears; and move in two circles, one made with each hand, from the centre to the upper edge of the eyebrows. Massage your neck with upward movements starting at the nape and moving round to the area under the chin. Massage your. scalp whenever you wash your hair. Using. your fingertips, gently work from the top of the spine towards the crown of your head, moving in small circles. Work back downwards in the same way towards the ears, then follow this by massaging the front of the head. Finish by spraying lukewarm water on the scalp. Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A – Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS - DOCTOR’S ANSWERS – LIVE BETTER NATURALLY - PART 28, FACIAL AND SCALP EXERCISES, Page 776. (Sorry - Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the script have been left out) , This painful muscle condition deserves its graphic name ­but it can be brought on by such mundane activities as carrying suitcases or wringing out the washing. Q If I had tennis elbow, how would I recognize it? A You would have a dull ache around the elbow area and upper side of the forearm, with a particular tender spot on, or near the bump that can be felt on the upper side of the elbow with the forearm placed across the chest Activities such as typing, using a squash or tennis racquet or even picking up heavy objects may be painful. Q How soon can one resume playing squash after suffering from tennis elbow? A That depends on how serious the injury was; you should seek your doctor's advice But it does vary considerably from person to person. In mild cases, you may only have to wait for a few days until the pain and stiffness subside, and then resume the sport gradually. More serious cases may necessitate a longer lay­off. But if you find that the tenderness returns whenever you play, then make sure you consult your doctor as soon as possible. Q I am presently taking part in a two-week tennis tournament, but have developed a painful tennis elbow on the first day. I don't want to withdraw from the tournament, so what should I do? A You should ask your doctor for a pain-killing injection, but he may not be willing to give it The danger is that you could seriously aggravate the injury without knowing it, thus delaying full healing for several weeks or even months. An alternative is to wear an elasticated sleeve or crepe bandage around the affected forearm. This will provide some relief from the pain and will reduce the chance of aggravating the injury. However, in the long-term, it really would be better if you rested the arm for a few days. Q Do you only get tennis elbow from playing tennis? A No. The injury is common in a wide variety of sports ­especially in racquet sports - and also occurs as a result of household chores and carpentry, in particular. Tennis elbow is a very common arm injury. Although it often develops during a hard game of tennis, it can also occur in a wide variety of other sports. and e,'en as a result of non-sporting acti,'ities. Tr.e injury is not really to the elbow itself. 8m to one or more of the forearm muscles "n their point of attachment to the elhJ\. These muscles are involved ir. r:~O't', ments of the wrist and fingers. \':-.ic:-, is why it is such a common injury 2r:'Cr.2" racquet players. of tennis elbow is due to small tears ,,'here the muscles join the lateral epicondyle. The cause of the Injury is un­accustomed vigorous or prolonged use of the forearm muscles, especially during sports like tennis, squash, cricket and athletic throwing events. It can also be caused during everyday events like wringing out the washing or using a tool like a screwdriver. Causes The elbow joint forms a pivot betv:t'e:-, ::',t' humerus bone in the upper arm. an:] ::"t' two bones in the forearm. At the lYe:e" i end of the humerus are two pro,iec:;('~"s­~ called epicondyles - to which a TI"clmct"": C forearm muscles are attached Tf-tt' :C2::~ Symptoms The pain of tennis elbow comes on gradually rather than suddenly, and is made worse by such activities as gripping something or picking up a heavy object, :~ke a full kettle. A very tender spot can 'clsually be felt at the site of the injury ·.':he,'e the forearm muscles are attached ::' the lateral epicondyle, but pain and stiffness may sometimes extend over the ·.•. bJle of the upper side of the forearm. Treatment ?est and a pain-relieving drug are ".lSlla':v sufficient to allow a return to full ,':':,t' ':1:' :he affected arm within a few days. :i:!'e pe,'sistent tennis elbow may be ::'i'~.:ec. \'ith a corticosteroid injection :'2"t':'-:e:' \'ith an anaesthetic which will '"i'~Jce :he pain and tenderness while the ::-l,'u:':: heals. \-here the injury is severe and per­:,t:'tent. heat treatment and physio­::-.erapy are used. Some tennis players :',a,'e found acupuncture helpful. Tennis elbow can be more than a temporary disability - it can actually hamper a successful tennis career, as in the case of the Australian star Tony Roche. Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS, DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 85, TENNIS ELBOW, Page 2356. (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the script have been left out) , Is there a link between physical characteristics and temperament? A morose fat man? A jolly scarecrow? These combinations probably seem implausible because we tend to categorize people according to their physique. But is there really a link between physical characteristics and temperament? Q I have suffered from migraine all my life. My friend tells me that this is caused by my personality, that I worry too much and should try to be happier. My doctor tells me that the migraines may be caused by a distended blood vessel in my brain. Who do I believe, my friend or my doctor? A Physiologically, the distension of a blood vessel in the head is indeed one of the more frequent causes of migraine, and ergot, a drug which causes the blood vessels to constrict, is often used to treat it. Yet statistics reveal that people who suffer from migraine tend to have strong guilt feelings and also strong feelings of insecurity, So both your doctor and your friend may be right. However, each individual is different and treatments that work with one patient will often fail with another, Only systematic investigation of your complaint at a migraine clinic will reveal the appropriate treatment for you, This will take psychological factors into consideration and if necessary you will be given professional help to identify any tendencies in your personality that might contribute to your condition, Trying to be happier should do no harm, but do remember that you are applying a simplistic solution to a complex problem and that it is unlikely to solve your problem on its own, Q Is it true that twins exhibit the same personality traits? A Twins who have been brought up together, whether they are identical or fraternal, tend to develop different personality traits, most probably as a way of expressing and establishing their independence, One twin might become more studious, the other more sociable, What is interesting however is that pairs of monozygotic twins (identical twins, formed from a single ovum) exhibit almost identical personality traits if they are brought up separately, Many studies have been made recently on twins separated at, or shortly after, birth, The results are a strong argument for the idea that many personality traits are indeed inherited, A person's temperament, or na:'..;ra: disposition, is an aspect of his or her :Je", sonality. Temperament is closely li::-,,;.;:ecl to emotion and in fact determines ho\\~ a" individual will react to his ,'arious emotions and moods. It has been thought for a long time that temperament has a physical origin, Modern medical research is now begin, ning to unearth some of the facts behind this traditional belief Ancient beliefs We have a natural tendency to categorize other people into 'types', For example, many people still believe in a theory developed by the ancient Greeks, that an individual's fate and character are determined by the positions of the stars at the time of his or her birth. And most of us still speak of people as being jovial ~eaning merry and hearty, qualities thought to derive from the influence of .Jupiter. or Jove, at the time of their birth): saturnine (Saturn was credited ,\'ith endowing people born under its influence with cold, sluggish and gloomy temperaments); or mercurial (quick­witted and volatile, born under Mercury). This theory of temperament seems to have broadened, rather than diminished, with the growth of scientific knowledge. But however strong a hold astrology may have on the imagination, investigation has shown that there is little conclusive evidence about the correlation between personality characteristics and the position of the stars at the time of birth. In Classical Greek drama, the actors traditionally wore masks as their faces might have revealed their own temperament and detracted from the characters they were portraying. In this modern performance of the 'Oresteia' by Aeschylus, the convention has been revived - and to great dramatic effect (below). Another belief concerning the link between the mind and the body origin­ated in ancient India and claimed that the body was governed by certain sub­stances: air, which is cold and dry; bile, which is hot and fluid; and phlegm. which is cold and oily. When these three are in their correct proportions the body is healthy; ill-health is caused by an excess or a lack of fluid or humour. People's ideas about temperament were governed for centuries by the doctrine of the four humours. The sanguine person was dominated by air and was optimistic and courageous; the phlegmatic individual by water, making him cool and calm. The hot­tempered choleric was ruled by fire and the melancholic by black bile. This doctrine of humours became the basis for medical diagnosis and treatment for more than a thousand years. For example. a patient suffering from wind might be diagnosed as suffering from an excess of air. An oil mi2-t'_: then be prescribed to counteract the ~air. As the doctrine spread from India to other civilizations it became broadened and modified. Blood was added as a fo'.,E':::-. humour and the Greeks, who belie\'ed that the earth was composed of four elements - earth, water, fire and air ­linked the two ideas together, formula­ting a theory embracing body and mind. Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle, postulated that people in whose body phlegm was the predominant humour were governed by the element water, and tended to be cool and calm, or sluggish and apathetic. Those people in whom yellow bile predominated were governed by the element fire and were said to be TEMPERAMENT choleric or irascible in temperament. Sanguine people were governed by air and had a predominance of blood, which made them courageous and optimistic, but melancholic people were dominated by a black bile, linked to the earth. Far-fetched though this theory may seem to us now, it governed people's \'ie\\'s of temperament for salong, and in so \':ide an area of the world, that it has ?ained the respect of modern scientists, 'TIan\ ,):' \':hom feel it might have been an If.stirc:i·:e groping towards the truth. Recent theories One of:he ~'eat phvsiologists of the 19th century. Cla'...lQe Bernard. pointed out that altho!.;g!: ::::e heart' \\'hose task it is to pump blood a!'o!.;nd the bodyl is a mechanism entirelv separate from the nervous svsteIY:.. it is r:e\'ertheless subject to nervous control. A strong emotion. such as terror. pro\'oked bv a strong TEMPERAMENT Q Can certain temperaments make some people more susceptible to disease than people with different kinds of temperament? A There is no conclusive evidence on this, although there are some theories that attempt to explain the link between personality and disease. Recent investigations into the immune system, for example, have brought to light the fact that negative emotions - such as feelings of helplessness, lack of love, and despair - produce high levels of certain hormones in the body that have a dampening effect on the immune system, predisposing the individual's body to attacks by viruses. Q I seem to have more frequent changes of mood than most people, and my mother says that I inherited my moodiness from my father's side of the family. Could she be right? A Without knowing a great deal about the psychological history of a family it is impossible to say whether a character trait, or indeed a physical symptom or an illness, is inherited. However, there has been much biological research into psychiatry during the past 20 years and one fact that has emerged is that certain personality disorders are inherited. These findings, however, have been made on the basis of a study of severe mental abnormalities, such as schizophrenia and manic depression, and it is not possible to say with any certainty that foibles of temperament are also inherited. They may be the result of life experiences having had a profound effect on the personality, or of environmental conditioning. Q Why is it that alcohol can cause changes in mood? A Alcohol is an 'anti-stimulant' - it depresses the arousal level in the brain. As the level of cortical arousal differs from one person to another, so the effect of alcohol varies. Extroverts are thought to have an under-active cortex and may be more susceptible to this depressant than introverts, who have high arousal levels. stimulus, is enough to stop it completely. Bernard wrote: 'A milder stimulus will stop the heart more briefly, but the function will be resumed with an increase of tempo, fluttering, or palpitations, which will send more blood to the brain, and result in a blush.' Many physiologists, both before and since, have remarked on the tendency of certain individuals to be altogether 'redder' than others. ·Such people may have a ruddy complexion, or may simply tend to blush more easily and more often than others, and perhaps also have a fiery temper, or be more self-conscious than others. The ancients merely observed and recorded such phenomena. Today's physiologists have the more difficult task of understanding and explaining. Claude Bernard was the physiologist who first formulated the idea of homeo­stasis - the ability of the body to maintain its equilibrium in the face of external changes, particularly of temperature. This mechanism is governed by the body's autonomic nervous system, under the control of the cortex of the brain. Our knowledge of how the brain functions is still in its infancy, and anyone attempting to discover the origins of a particular aspect of behaviour will 'Elementary, my dear Watson'- the actors' faces reflect Sherlock Holmes's effortless superiority and the good doctor's credulity. Their strongly contrasting temperaments made for a winning team! usually find progress blocked at some stage by lack of knowledge. However it is known that whenever parts of the cortex are damaged or removed, dramatic changes in temperament follow. Damage to the temporal lobe (the front part) of the brain is followed by docile or compulsive behaviour or with abnormal­ly high sexual response in man and other mammals. Similarly, drugs that depress or stimulate the production of chemicals that playa part in transmitting electrical impulses from one part of the brain to the other result, respectively, in sedation or stimulation. Amphetamines, for example, are stimulants that act by releasing a trans­mitter substance called noradrenalin from nerve cells; they probably prevent other chemicals from being manufac­tured to inactivate adrenalin. It is believed that the tranquillizer reserpine inhibits the release of stimulating substances from the brain's nerve cells. Therefore, an habitually nervous person may have consistently high levels of stimulants in the brain. Conversely, a person with a tendency to lengthy bouts of depression may have abnormally high levels of chemicals which depress the release of stimulants. The link between mind and body Although our understanding of the brain may be incomplete, physiologists dis­covered the physical link between mind and body very early on. This is the hypothalamus, a gland that is located in the cortex of the brain. One of the hypothalamus's major functions is to relay impulses and stimuli between the brain and organs such as the heart and respiratory centres. It does this by receiving certain of the chemical transmitter substances released by the nerve cells of the brain and, in response to the trigger, releasing hormones. Hormones are formed in the glands by internal secretions and are carried to specific organs of the body which they stimulate into action. Hormones regulate the body's homeo­stasis as well as mood and behaviour. In man, hormones regulate the body clock ­the heartbeat, breathing and digestion. The hypothalamus is the body's master gland. The hormones it releases regulate body temperature and the volume of the blood plasma (the fluid in ,,'hich red and white blood cells float I. Some of these are transmitters which influence the secretion of other hormones from other glands. In addition, the hypothalamus helps the brain to decide whether a stimulus from outside is pleasant or painful and it also influences sexual behaviour. Other glands also affect temperament in different ways. For example, the thyroid gland, when over-active, results in over-anxiousness and rapid mood changes, while people with under-active thyroids tend to be slow and apathetic. These and other examples demonstrate how great a part glandular secretions play in regulating everyday moods, but it is also thought that they may have an even greater role - in the establishment of human character. Is it growing older that inhibits our willingness to stand out in a crowd? The singingof'The Red Flag' is traditional at the end of Labour Party conferences, but such public displays seem to suit some temperaments more than others (left). There is no aspect of behaviour which is not controlled in some way by hormones, Yet the idea that glands actually deter­mine temperament is now thought to be exaggerated. There are serious disorders of temperament in which hormones seem to play no part; manic depressive psychosis and schizophrenia, for instance. Moreover, although glandular activity does affect patterns of behaviour it is - equally true that there is no activity of a specific gland, or indeed of the entire autonomic nervous system, that cannot be upset by emotion. The example of blushing, in which the blood vessels suddenly dilate, is a good example. What is certain is that there is some interdependence between emotional states and hormonal activity. Temperament and physique Some 50 years ago the scientist E. Kretschmer noticed a striking difference in physique between people with different disturbances. He realized that while schizophrenic patients tend to be thin and ascetic in appearance, manic-depressive patients are broadly built and short. By means of observation and measurement he succeeded in demonstrating some affinity between illness and physique, and believed that the schizophrenic and the Bjorn Borg and John McEnroe ­both marvellous tennis players, but how different in temperament! Borg's steely calm seems to make him impervious to the tensions and dramas of the Centre Court and makes him a trul:y formidable opponent. The gifted McEnroe, on the other hand, is renowned for his explosive temper which frequently gets him into trouble with line judf{es and umpires. manic depressive were two extremes of two common personality types, with predispositions to different psychoses. Kretschmer's investigations have not withstood the test of time, but perhaps simply because people seem instinctively to classify people they meet in everyday life into types, researchers have con­tinued trying to discover a science of individual differences. In the 1940s, the American psychol­ogist W. H. Sheldon began a rigorous study not on abnormal human beings, but on people within the normal range of personality types. 'Tradition has it', he pointed out, 'that fat men are jolly and generous, that lean men are dour, that short men are aggressive and that strong men are silent and confident.' Sheldon began his investigations by photographing 4000 nude men, all of a similar age, in identical poses and in controlled conditions. From comparisons of measurements taken from five different regions of the body he produced his now familiar theory of physical types. Endomorphs, he stated, are people who are predominantly round and fat. Meso­morphs, in contrast, have a pre­dominance of bone, muscle and connec­th-e tissue in their body and, in ever. greater contrast, ectomorphs are predominantly fragile and elongated in physique. During his investigations he inter­\'ie\wd and closely observed each of the ,±GOO men on successive occasions. When he had produced his theory of physique he \,'em on to compare the data from these inten'ie\,'s to see if it was possible to distinguish any correlation between physique and personality. Endomorphs. he discovered, tend to exhibit a predominance of relaxed. friendly, pleasure-loving traits. They live, as it were, by and for the digestion- Studies linking body type to temperament maintain that athletic mesomorphs are vigorous, outgoing souls - full of life. loving food and often disliking exercise ­and needing companionship, even when troubled. He called this personality type viscerotonia. The mesomorph, in contrast, is the vigorous outdoor type of person, adventurous and dominating, and not only loving, but needing, daily physical activity. This type of person tends to be direct and outgoing, but not necessarily intellectual. He called this type somatotonia. The ascetic ectomorph tended to be intellectual and introverted, often shy and ill at ease, and often disliked exercise. This type was indifferent to company and food and the social ceremony that accompanies eating in most societies. Sheldon called this type of personality cerebrotonia. Since the characteristic of each type in Sheldon's scheme could differ from individual to individual - a need for solitude, for example, being characteris­tic of cerebrotonic types, but stronger in some than others - each individual was assessed numerically according to his individual trait. The pattern expressed in the resulting number became the indi­vidual's somatype. Sheldon's research makes absorbing reading, but it has been criticized as being over-simplified, since it merely considers personality traits and fails to discuss their organization in the per­sonality as a whole. However as psychology as a science advances, students of behaviour are Round and chubby endomorphs are supposedly not so keen on physical exercise - what they really relish is their food. tending more and more towards specialization in 3Uch matters as the investigation of a brain function, or a specific personality trait. In this context, Sheldon's attempt at a 5cientific explora­tion of temperament is an invaluable work which has gi\'en rise to many theories. Illness and temperament The idea that people's emotions pre­dispose them to certain types of illness is a belief older than the doctrine of humours, but its investigation is a new branch of science. Ancient Chinese medicine postulated that the body is an integral mechanism in which inconsistencies contradict each other. Contradictions of mental and emotional activity caused by the influences of society and the natural environment may cause disease, or hasten its development. Emotions as diverse as joy, excitement, happiness, anger, fright and sorrow under most conditions will not cause disease, but under some they can damage normal body functions and cause neurosis or functional disturbances. Also, body­build, bodily reactions and individual differences of age, sex and resistance can predispose people to disease. This way of thinking about the human body, which has persisted in China until today - though modified by new know- Ectomorphs have a fragile frame and in theory tend to be introverted, intellectual, tense and rather ill at ease in company. ledge and new theories - has begun to influence modern Western medicine. It has given rise to theories correlating personality and disease, and has led to new concepts of psychosomatic medicine. One theory, for example, suggests that people with certain personality traits may be susceptible to certain diseases; such people are classified into 'biotypes'. Thus, the heart attack biotype is an achiever and competitor. His or her body is constantly prepared for 'fight or flight' and he may, as a result, have higher levels of hormones such as adrenalin and noradrenalin in the bloodstream. These mobilize fats and cholesterol from body tissues into the bloodstream, raise the blood pressure and increase the ability of the blood to clot. Excess cholesterol in the arteries soon leads to a heart attack. Other biotypes include people sus­ceptible to angina, ulcers or rheumatism. This branch of medicine does offer one solution: gradually to change the personality and the unconscious tenden­cies by changing the patient's life-style. Psycho-physiologists (those who study the relationship between mind and body) investigate individual differences and attempt to bring the branches together. These medical scientists are, in effect, trying to establish a method of measuring individual responses to emotional situations, cyclic events, stress and drugs, in order to discover the truth behind the observations of individual differences and the causes of temperament.     Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 85, TEMPERAMENT, Page 23240 to 2345.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out)   . But is there really a link between physical characteristics and temperament? Q I have suffered from migraine all my life. My friend tells me that this is caused by my personality, that I worry too much and should try to be happier. My doctor tells me that the migraines may be caused by a distended blood vessel in my brain. Who do I believe, my friend or my doctor? A Physiologically, the distension of a blood vessel in the head is indeed one of the more frequent causes of migraine, and ergot, a drug which causes the blood vessels to constrict, is often used to treat it. Yet statistics reveal that people who suffer from migraine tend to have strong guilt feelings and also strong feelings of insecurity, So both your doctor and your friend may be right. However, each individual is different and treatments that work with one patient will often fail with another, Only systematic investigation of your complaint at a migraine clinic will reveal the appropriate treatment for you, This will take psychological factors into consideration and if necessary you will be given professional help to identify any tendencies in your personality that might contribute to your condition, Trying to be happier should do no harm, but do remember that you are applying a simplistic solution to a complex problem and that it is unlikely to solve your problem on its own, Q Is it true that twins exhibit the same personality traits? A Twins who have been brought up together, whether they are identical or fraternal, tend to develop different personality traits, most probably as a way of expressing and establishing their independence, One twin might become more studious, the other more sociable, What is interesting however is that pairs of monozygotic twins (identical twins, formed from a single ovum) exhibit almost identical personality traits if they are brought up separately, Many studies have been made recently on twins separated at, or shortly after, birth, The results are a strong argument for the idea that many personality traits are indeed inherited, A person's temperament, or na:'..;ra: disposition, is an aspect of his or her :Je", sonality. Temperament is closely li::-,,;.;:ecl to emotion and in fact determines ho\\~ a" individual will react to his ,'arious emotions and moods. It has been thought for a long time that temperament has a physical origin, Modern medical research is now begin, ning to unearth some of the facts behind this traditional belief Ancient beliefs We have a natural tendency to categorize other people into 'types', For example, many people still believe in a theory developed by the ancient Greeks, that an individual's fate and character are determined by the positions of the stars at the time of his or her birth. And most of us still speak of people as being jovial ~eaning merry and hearty, qualities thought to derive from the influence of .Jupiter. or Jove, at the time of their birth): saturnine (Saturn was credited ,\'ith endowing people born under its influence with cold, sluggish and gloomy temperaments); or mercurial (quick­witted and volatile, born under Mercury). This theory of temperament seems to have broadened, rather than diminished, with the growth of scientific knowledge. But however strong a hold astrology may have on the imagination, investigation has shown that there is little conclusive evidence about the correlation between personality characteristics and the position of the stars at the time of birth. In Classical Greek drama, the actors traditionally wore masks as their faces might have revealed their own temperament and detracted from the characters they were portraying. In this modern performance of the 'Oresteia' by Aeschylus, the convention has been revived - and to great dramatic effect (below). Another belief concerning the link between the mind and the body origin­ated in ancient India and claimed that the body was governed by certain sub­stances: air, which is cold and dry; bile, which is hot and fluid; and phlegm. which is cold and oily. When these three are in their correct proportions the body is healthy; ill-health is caused by an excess or a lack of fluid or humour. People's ideas about temperament were governed for centuries by the doctrine of the four humours. The sanguine person was dominated by air and was optimistic and courageous; the phlegmatic individual by water, making him cool and calm. The hot­tempered choleric was ruled by fire and the melancholic by black bile. This doctrine of humours became the basis for medical diagnosis and treatment for more than a thousand years. For example. a patient suffering from wind might be diagnosed as suffering from an excess of air. An oil mi2-t'_: then be prescribed to counteract the ~air. As the doctrine spread from India to other civilizations it became broadened and modified. Blood was added as a fo'.,E':::-. humour and the Greeks, who belie\'ed that the earth was composed of four elements - earth, water, fire and air ­linked the two ideas together, formula­ting a theory embracing body and mind. Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle, postulated that people in whose body phlegm was the predominant humour were governed by the element water, and tended to be cool and calm, or sluggish and apathetic. Those people in whom yellow bile predominated were governed by the element fire and were said to be TEMPERAMENT choleric or irascible in temperament. Sanguine people were governed by air and had a predominance of blood, which made them courageous and optimistic, but melancholic people were dominated by a black bile, linked to the earth. Far-fetched though this theory may seem to us now, it governed people's \'ie\\'s of temperament for salong, and in so \':ide an area of the world, that it has ?ained the respect of modern scientists, 'TIan\ ,):' \':hom feel it might have been an If.stirc:i·:e groping towards the truth. Recent theories One of:he ~'eat phvsiologists of the 19th century. Cla'...lQe Bernard. pointed out that altho!.;g!: ::::e heart' \\'hose task it is to pump blood a!'o!.;nd the bodyl is a mechanism entirelv separate from the nervous svsteIY:.. it is r:e\'ertheless subject to nervous control. A strong emotion. such as terror. pro\'oked bv a strong TEMPERAMENT Q Can certain temperaments make some people more susceptible to disease than people with different kinds of temperament? A There is no conclusive evidence on this, although there are some theories that attempt to explain the link between personality and disease. Recent investigations into the immune system, for example, have brought to light the fact that negative emotions - such as feelings of helplessness, lack of love, and despair - produce high levels of certain hormones in the body that have a dampening effect on the immune system, predisposing the individual's body to attacks by viruses. Q I seem to have more frequent changes of mood than most people, and my mother says that I inherited my moodiness from my father's side of the family. Could she be right? A Without knowing a great deal about the psychological history of a family it is impossible to say whether a character trait, or indeed a physical symptom or an illness, is inherited. However, there has been much biological research into psychiatry during the past 20 years and one fact that has emerged is that certain personality disorders are inherited. These findings, however, have been made on the basis of a study of severe mental abnormalities, such as schizophrenia and manic depression, and it is not possible to say with any certainty that foibles of temperament are also inherited. They may be the result of life experiences having had a profound effect on the personality, or of environmental conditioning. Q Why is it that alcohol can cause changes in mood? A Alcohol is an 'anti-stimulant' - it depresses the arousal level in the brain. As the level of cortical arousal differs from one person to another, so the effect of alcohol varies. Extroverts are thought to have an under-active cortex and may be more susceptible to this depressant than introverts, who have high arousal levels. stimulus, is enough to stop it completely. Bernard wrote: 'A milder stimulus will stop the heart more briefly, but the function will be resumed with an increase of tempo, fluttering, or palpitations, which will send more blood to the brain, and result in a blush.' Many physiologists, both before and since, have remarked on the tendency of certain individuals to be altogether 'redder' than others. ·Such people may have a ruddy complexion, or may simply tend to blush more easily and more often than others, and perhaps also have a fiery temper, or be more self-conscious than others. The ancients merely observed and recorded such phenomena. Today's physiologists have the more difficult task of understanding and explaining. Claude Bernard was the physiologist who first formulated the idea of homeo­stasis - the ability of the body to maintain its equilibrium in the face of external changes, particularly of temperature. This mechanism is governed by the body's autonomic nervous system, under the control of the cortex of the brain. Our knowledge of how the brain functions is still in its infancy, and anyone attempting to discover the origins of a particular aspect of behaviour will 'Elementary, my dear Watson'- the actors' faces reflect Sherlock Holmes's effortless superiority and the good doctor's credulity. Their strongly contrasting temperaments made for a winning team! usually find progress blocked at some stage by lack of knowledge. However it is known that whenever parts of the cortex are damaged or removed, dramatic changes in temperament follow. Damage to the temporal lobe (the front part) of the brain is followed by docile or compulsive behaviour or with abnormal­ly high sexual response in man and other mammals. Similarly, drugs that depress or stimulate the production of chemicals that playa part in transmitting electrical impulses from one part of the brain to the other result, respectively, in sedation or stimulation. Amphetamines, for example, are stimulants that act by releasing a trans­mitter substance called noradrenalin from nerve cells; they probably prevent other chemicals from being manufac­tured to inactivate adrenalin. It is believed that the tranquillizer reserpine inhibits the release of stimulating substances from the brain's nerve cells. Therefore, an habitually nervous person may have consistently high levels of stimulants in the brain. Conversely, a person with a tendency to lengthy bouts of depression may have abnormally high levels of chemicals which depress the release of stimulants. The link between mind and body Although our understanding of the brain may be incomplete, physiologists dis­covered the physical link between mind and body very early on. This is the hypothalamus, a gland that is located in the cortex of the brain. One of the hypothalamus's major functions is to relay impulses and stimuli between the brain and organs such as the heart and respiratory centres. It does this by receiving certain of the chemical transmitter substances released by the nerve cells of the brain and, in response to the trigger, releasing hormones. Hormones are formed in the glands by internal secretions and are carried to specific organs of the body which they stimulate into action. Hormones regulate the body's homeo­stasis as well as mood and behaviour. In man, hormones regulate the body clock ­the heartbeat, breathing and digestion. The hypothalamus is the body's master gland. The hormones it releases regulate body temperature and the volume of the blood plasma (the fluid in ,,'hich red and white blood cells float I. Some of these are transmitters which influence the secretion of other hormones from other glands. In addition, the hypothalamus helps the brain to decide whether a stimulus from outside is pleasant or painful and it also influences sexual behaviour. Other glands also affect temperament in different ways. For example, the thyroid gland, when over-active, results in over-anxiousness and rapid mood changes, while people with under-active thyroids tend to be slow and apathetic. These and other examples demonstrate how great a part glandular secretions play in regulating everyday moods, but it is also thought that they may have an even greater role - in the establishment of human character. Is it growing older that inhibits our willingness to stand out in a crowd? The singingof'The Red Flag' is traditional at the end of Labour Party conferences, but such public displays seem to suit some temperaments more than others (left). There is no aspect of behaviour which is not controlled in some way by hormones, Yet the idea that glands actually deter­mine temperament is now thought to be exaggerated. There are serious disorders of temperament in which hormones seem to play no part; manic depressive psychosis and schizophrenia, for instance. Moreover, although glandular activity does affect patterns of behaviour it is - equally true that there is no activity of a specific gland, or indeed of the entire autonomic nervous system, that cannot be upset by emotion. The example of blushing, in which the blood vessels suddenly dilate, is a good example. What is certain is that there is some interdependence between emotional states and hormonal activity. Temperament and physique Some 50 years ago the scientist E. Kretschmer noticed a striking difference in physique between people with different disturbances. He realized that while schizophrenic patients tend to be thin and ascetic in appearance, manic-depressive patients are broadly built and short. By means of observation and measurement he succeeded in demonstrating some affinity between illness and physique, and believed that the schizophrenic and the Bjorn Borg and John McEnroe ­both marvellous tennis players, but how different in temperament! Borg's steely calm seems to make him impervious to the tensions and dramas of the Centre Court and makes him a trul:y formidable opponent. The gifted McEnroe, on the other hand, is renowned for his explosive temper which frequently gets him into trouble with line judf{es and umpires. manic depressive were two extremes of two common personality types, with predispositions to different psychoses. Kretschmer's investigations have not withstood the test of time, but perhaps simply because people seem instinctively to classify people they meet in everyday life into types, researchers have con­tinued trying to discover a science of individual differences. In the 1940s, the American psychol­ogist W. H. Sheldon began a rigorous study not on abnormal human beings, but on people within the normal range of personality types. 'Tradition has it', he pointed out, 'that fat men are jolly and generous, that lean men are dour, that short men are aggressive and that strong men are silent and confident.' Sheldon began his investigations by photographing 4000 nude men, all of a similar age, in identical poses and in controlled conditions. From comparisons of measurements taken from five different regions of the body he produced his now familiar theory of physical types. Endomorphs, he stated, are people who are predominantly round and fat. Meso­morphs, in contrast, have a pre­dominance of bone, muscle and connec­th-e tissue in their body and, in ever. greater contrast, ectomorphs are predominantly fragile and elongated in physique. During his investigations he inter­\'ie\wd and closely observed each of the ,±GOO men on successive occasions. When he had produced his theory of physique he \,'em on to compare the data from these inten'ie\,'s to see if it was possible to distinguish any correlation between physique and personality. Endomorphs. he discovered, tend to exhibit a predominance of relaxed. friendly, pleasure-loving traits. They live, as it were, by and for the digestion- Studies linking body type to temperament maintain that athletic mesomorphs are vigorous, outgoing souls - full of life. loving food and often disliking exercise ­and needing companionship, even when troubled. He called this personality type viscerotonia. The mesomorph, in contrast, is the vigorous outdoor type of person, adventurous and dominating, and not only loving, but needing, daily physical activity. This type of person tends to be direct and outgoing, but not necessarily intellectual. He called this type somatotonia. The ascetic ectomorph tended to be intellectual and introverted, often shy and ill at ease, and often disliked exercise. This type was indifferent to company and food and the social ceremony that accompanies eating in most societies. Sheldon called this type of personality cerebrotonia. Since the characteristic of each type in Sheldon's scheme could differ from individual to individual - a need for solitude, for example, being characteris­tic of cerebrotonic types, but stronger in some than others - each individual was assessed numerically according to his individual trait. The pattern expressed in the resulting number became the indi­vidual's somatype. Sheldon's research makes absorbing reading, but it has been criticized as being over-simplified, since it merely considers personality traits and fails to discuss their organization in the per­sonality as a whole. However as psychology as a science advances, students of behaviour are Round and chubby endomorphs are supposedly not so keen on physical exercise - what they really relish is their food. tending more and more towards specialization in 3Uch matters as the investigation of a brain function, or a specific personality trait. In this context, Sheldon's attempt at a 5cientific explora­tion of temperament is an invaluable work which has gi\'en rise to many theories. Illness and temperament The idea that people's emotions pre­dispose them to certain types of illness is a belief older than the doctrine of humours, but its investigation is a new branch of science. Ancient Chinese medicine postulated that the body is an integral mechanism in which inconsistencies contradict each other. Contradictions of mental and emotional activity caused by the influences of society and the natural environment may cause disease, or hasten its development. Emotions as diverse as joy, excitement, happiness, anger, fright and sorrow under most conditions will not cause disease, but under some they can damage normal body functions and cause neurosis or functional disturbances. Also, body­build, bodily reactions and individual differences of age, sex and resistance can predispose people to disease. This way of thinking about the human body, which has persisted in China until today - though modified by new know- Ectomorphs have a fragile frame and in theory tend to be introverted, intellectual, tense and rather ill at ease in company. ledge and new theories - has begun to influence modern Western medicine. It has given rise to theories correlating personality and disease, and has led to new concepts of psychosomatic medicine. One theory, for example, suggests that people with certain personality traits may be susceptible to certain diseases; such people are classified into 'biotypes'. Thus, the heart attack biotype is an achiever and competitor. His or her body is constantly prepared for 'fight or flight' and he may, as a result, have higher levels of hormones such as adrenalin and noradrenalin in the bloodstream. These mobilize fats and cholesterol from body tissues into the bloodstream, raise the blood pressure and increase the ability of the blood to clot. Excess cholesterol in the arteries soon leads to a heart attack. Other biotypes include people sus­ceptible to angina, ulcers or rheumatism. This branch of medicine does offer one solution: gradually to change the personality and the unconscious tenden­cies by changing the patient's life-style. Psycho-physiologists (those who study the relationship between mind and body) investigate individual differences and attempt to bring the branches together. These medical scientists are, in effect, trying to establish a method of measuring individual responses to emotional situations, cyclic events, stress and drugs, in order to discover the truth behind the observations of individual differences and the causes of temperament.     Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 85, TEMPERAMENT, Page 23240 to 2345.   (Sorry. Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos in the  script have been left out)  , Although they are by far the most common of multiple births, twins still excite a great deal of wonder from parents and outsiders alike. What are the special problems of twinship and how should they be dealt with? Q What is the difference between identical and non­identical twins? A On a biological level, identical twins are the result of a single fertilized egg cell dividing into two identical cells which then separate and develop independently. Since both twins are derived from one sperm and one egg, they are genetically identical. Non-identical twins, on the other hand, are no more genetically similar than ordinary brothers and sisters. They develop from two different ova and have separate placentas. Q Is it true that Siamese twins are actually identical twins, and that they can be separated by surgery? A Yes, it is. In rare instances, identical twins can be born joined together, usually at the hip, chest or abdomen. Naturally they will be of the same sex, but may look radically different from each other. Sometimes they can be separated by surgery, but if they share a vital organ surgery will usually not be done. Q I've read that if one member of a pair of twins dies at birth his or her twin feels incomplete for the rest of his life. Is this true? A Yes. There have been reported cases where the dead twin had a lasting influence on the live twin, who lived with a dramatic sense of loss. In some instances this feeling of loss was diverted into a fantasy life which involved the dead twin, and this often influenced the pattern of the live twin's future relationships. Q Is it possible for identical twins to look so alike that you can't tell them apart? A Yes. A celebrated case was that of the 'Toni Twins' - identical twins who appeared in a series of advertisements in the 1950s. They underwent a series of tests twenty years later, and it was found that not only did they still look identical, but their fingerprints were the same, blood pressure readings were the same-even the cholesterol levels in their bodies were identical! Fraternal twins In a normal pregnancy only one ovum or egg is fertilized. However, if two ova are fertilized at the same time, fraternal or non-identical twins will be born. These twins may be of the same or different sexes, and can be as dissimilar to each other as any pair of siblings. This is because they grow from two separate egg cells fertilized at the same time. The tendency to give birth to fraternal twins is inherited, especially through the mother's side. They tend to miss every other generation so that children of dizygotic twins are more likely to bear twins than to be born twins themselves. These twins also appear more frequently after the second pregnancy and if the mother becomes pregnant later in life. Research has shown that mothers aged 35-40 are three times likelier to have fraternal twins than mothers under 20. Identical twins In rare cases, if one ovum is fertilized, as in a normal pregnancy, but the resulting embryo divides at a very early stage and produces two embryos, monozygotic or identical twins will be born. Since these twins would originally have formed from the same ovum and sperm, identical twins will have the same genetic make­up; they will be of the same sex and have the same blood group, same build and the same physical characteristics. Occasionally some pairs of twins have the same characteristics in reverse: for example, the hair of one twin may part on the right, while the other's hair part naturally on the left. These twins come from a common egg cell that did not divide until it had developed left- and right-sided characteristics. Psychology of twins The psychological development of twins is a fruitful area of scientific research - in fact, studying pairs of identical twins has led to valuable insights into distin­guishing constitutional characteristics from those that are acquired. More often than not, twins are quite different psychologically. Even monozygotic or identical twins raised in the same environment may have very different personalities. However, if one twin has schizophrenia, the other twin - especially if he is an identical one - runs a higher risk of developing the same condition.  Very often, however, the bond between a pair of twins transcends any physical similarities. There are hundreds of 5tories, for example, of one twin feeling great pain when his or her twin has been hurt - even when they were miles apart. There are also accounts of one member of a pair of identical twins going through all the symptoms of childbirth when her sister was in labour. In fact, on a more basic level identical twin babies can show disconcerting psychological similarities. Often when one twin is reprimanded the other will act as if he or she is guilty as well. They will be happy at the same time, sad at the same time, bored in the same situations. In fact it is this constant process of identification with each other on the basis of their similarity of emotional experience which keeps identical twins 'identical' in spite of differences acquired in later life. Twins and individuality Some parents emphasize the twinship of their children by treating them as if they had no individuality: dressing them alike, giving them the same presents, or treating them as if they were one unit rather than two possibly very different individuals. This isn't very surprising ­the whole world is fascinated by twins, makes a fuss of them and likes them to look and dress alike. In some respects this could be dangerous: by throwing twins on to each other exclusively, the tendency of one twin to copy the other or become dependent on him or her increases. This may overstress the twins' normal identification with each other and thus produce a team relationship which may estrange them from their surroundings. Emotional disturbances may develop, especially if for some reason the twins have to be separated. Even so, parents should not be afraid to dress their twins alike or to enjoy the attention the twins get because of their similarity - provided that it's kept in perspective. Twins. in fact, can develop great strength of personality from being twins, a capacity for playing together independently of their parents. Feeding twins can be a problem. The majority of parents have found that it is essential to try to get the twins on to a schedule as soon as possible, and to feed both babies at once or one right after the other, or else they will be feeding all day and all night. Breast feeding is entirely feasible: as soon as the babies can nurse they can be put to breast together, either lying across their mother's arms or in her lap, one on top of the other, with heads at opposite sides. Problems with twins The mortality rate of twins in the womb is higher than that of single foetuses. This is because life in the uterus for the twins tends to be more difficult and twin preg­nancies are often associated with complications. Twins are also more prone to growth retardation and there is a higher rate of mental subnormality and congenital problems. Identical twins may run a higher risk of such diseases as leukaemia.                           The odds against twins reaching 100 years of age are a staggering 700 million to one, but these American twins - pictured together at the turn of the century and celebrating their centennial birthday - have defied those odds! Twinship taken to a happy extreme: these two pairs of twins met at a party, were married at a double wedding and lead virtually identical lives. Non-identical (fracternal) twins result from two separate eggs that are fertilized at the same time by two separate sperm. Each twin develops its own placenta. Identical twins result when a single egg is fertilized and later divides. These twins usually share the same placenta unless the cells separate at an early stage of development.     Taken from The Marshall Cavendish A  to Z GUIDE IN WEEKLY PARTS,  DOCTOR’S ANSWERS: PART 90, TWINS, Page 2481 to 2483.   (All photos in the  script have been left out)., , , We have joined a growing community of therapists around the world who are collaborating with children and families in ways that allow all of us (therapists, children, and parents alike) to be lighthearted, humorous, and creative--and yet surprisingly effective in resolving many of the problems that we face today. In our view, the developments collectively known as narrative therapy offer some unique and helpful perspectives to the field of child and family therapy. The term narrative implies listening to and telling or retelling stories about people and the problems in their lives. In the face of serious and sometimes potentially deadly problems, the idea of hearing or telling stories may seem a trivial pursuit. It is hard to believe that conversations can shape new realities. But they do. The bridges of meaning we build with children help healing developments flourish instead of wither and be forgotten. Language can shape events into narratives of hope. We humans have evolved as a species to use mental narratives to organize, predict, and understand the complexities of our lived experiences. Our choices are shaped largely by the meanings we attribute to events and to the options we are considering. A problem may have personal, psychological, sociocultural, or biological roots--or, more likely, a complex mix of the above. Moreover, young persons and their families may not have control over whether a certain problem is in their life. But even then, how they live with it is still within their choice. As Aldous Huxley once said, "Experience is not what happens to you. It is what you do with what happens to you." A PLAYFUL APPROACH It has continued to astonish us how resourceful, responsible, and effective children can be in facing problems! Externalizing language separates children from their problems and allows a lighthearted approach to what is usually considered serious business. Playfulness enters into a family therapy when we narrate the relationship between a child and a problem. When adults and children collaborate actively play is a mutual friend. It inspires children to bring their resources to bear on problems and make their own unique contributions to family therapy. Playful approaches in narrative therapy direct the focus away from the child as a problem and onto the child-problem relationship in a way that is meaningful for adults as well as intriguing, not heavy-handed or boring, for children. EXTERNALIZATION "The problem is the problem, the person is not the problem" is an oft quoted maxim of narrative therapy. The linguistic practice of externalization, (White, 1988/9; White & Epston, 1990a) which separates persons from problems, is a playful way to motivate children to face and diminish difficulties. In a family, blame and shame about a problem tend to have a silencing and immobilizing effect. Moreover, when persons think of a problem as an integral part of their character or the nature of their relationships, it is difficult for them to change, as it seems so "close to home." Separating the problem from the person in an externalizing conversation relieves the pressure of blame and defensiveness. No longer defined as inherently being the problem, a young person can have a relationship with the externalized problem. This practice lets a person or group of persons enter into a more reflective and critical position vis-à-vis the problem. With some distance established between self and problem, family members can consider the effects of the problem on their lives and bring their own resources to bear in revising their relationship with it. In the space between person and problem, responsibility, choice, and personal agency tend to expand. This practice also tends to create a lighter atmosphere wherein children are invited to be inventive in dealing with their problem, instead of being so immobilized by blame, guilt, or shame that their parents are required to carry the full burden of problem-solving. As White (1988/9, p.6) has commented, externalizing conversation "frees persons to take a lighter, more effective and less stressed approach to 'deadly serious' problems." Soiling was one of the first problems to be externalized by Michael White (1984; 1989). In a straightforward externalization encopresis was renamed "Sneaky Poo." Encopresis is a medical diagnostic term; in itself there is nothing wrong with it. However, the grammar that we use in speaking with and about young people has certain effects. To say that "Tom is encopretic" is to imply something about his identity. To say that "Tom's problem is that he soils his pants" is accurate, but it may be adding shame to an already humiliating situation. To say that "Sneaky Poo has been stinking up Tom's life by sneaking out in his pants" is a more gamesome way to describe Tom's relationship with the problem of soiling. It is more likely to invite Tom's participation in the discussion of his problem. It can also evoke a more sportive stance for Tom vis-à-vis the problem, as we can now talk about how "Tom can outsneak Sneaky Poo and stop it from sneaking out on him." Tom no longer has to be a different kind of person from the one he understands himself to be. In fact, revising his relation with such a problem as "Sneaky Poo" may very well confirm him as being just the right kind of person for the job at hand--"outsneaking Sneaky Poo." Standing as an alternative to the diagnosis and treatment of pathology, the focus in an externalizing conversation is on expanding choice and possibility in the relationship between persons and problems. Roth and Epston (1996, p. 5) write: In contrast to the common cultural and professional practice of identifying the person as the problem or the problem as within the person, this work depicts the problem as external to the person. It does so not in the conviction that the problem is objectively separate, but as a linguistic counter-practice that makes more freeing constructions available. When they enter therapy overwhelmed by a problem, members of the family may expect that the clinician will discover further underlying conflicts in their minds or relationships. Therapists take an active role in shaping the attributions that are used to describe young persons and families and to explain their problematic situations, and when a therapist listens to, accepts, and then furthers the investigation of a pathological description of a child, the child's identity may suffer. When a problem is externalized, the attitude of young people in therapy usually shifts. When they realize that the problem, instead of them, is going to be put on the spot or under scrutiny they enthusiastically join in the conversation. Relief shows on their faces. Their eyes light up, as if to say, "Yeah, that's it, that's how I look at it. It's not my fault." They are then in a position to acknowledge that the "problem" happens to be making them and others miserable and to discuss matters with, at times, remarkable candor. Although in one sense it is a serious pursuit, we find this practice to be inherently playful and appealing to children. Maria sent Jenny a valentine card one year, with the caption "Poo Poo to Fear and Temper" and little drawings of each on the front. On the back was written "I like talking with you and I like calling fear and temper names. From Maria." Jenna, a nine-year-old once wrote in relation to a mask she had made of "The Trickster Fear": 'You're no longer nothing . . . being nothing made it hard to know you. Once you're named, you can be known and conquered!" EXTERNALIZATION AND CHILDREN'S IDENTITY FORMATION Aside from their understandable opposition to being blamed or shamed, perhaps children are showing common sense in resisting being defined by descriptions that imply that their identities are limited or fixed. Even adults do not find rigid negative descriptions of themselves particularly motivating toward change. Why shouldn't children resist a fixed adult-imposed definition or a normative characterization? After all, identity remains exploratory and relatively fluid well into adolescence. Viewing the child as facing rather than being a problem is a helpful start to preserving the fluidity of identity formation. Externalization seems a natural fit for many children. It is compatible with the way they typically approach difficulties in the dynamic learning environment of play. In play, along with hats, costumes, and accents, multiple perspectives and roles are tried on during "dressup" and other games. This fluidity allows the child to explore variations of attitude, identity and behavior--to try out the emotional flavor of the moment or day. In fact, when a child's play is repetitive, ritualistic, or confined in its range of roles and behaviors, we may wonder about abuse or other severe interruptions to developing identity. For the child, externalization is like playing a game of "pretend." Implicitly, or sometimes even explicitly, we are saying to the child, "Let's pretend the problem is outside yourself and we'll play with it from there." As Paley (1990, p. 7) writes, "'Pretend' often confuses the adult but it is the child's real and serious world, the stage upon which any identity is possible and secret thoughts can be safely revealed." As therapists, we have been especially trained in the use of words. But practicing the language of externalizing conversations is for us, as for many others, not so much about learning a technique as about developing a particular way of seeing things. As Roth and Epston (1996a, p. 149) write: We do not see externalizing as a technical operation or as a method. It is a language practice that shows, invites, and evokes generative and respectful ways of thinking about and being with people struggling to develop the kinds of relationships they would prefer to have with the problems that discomfort them. We have noticed some benefits for us personally. Focusing our attention on values, hopes, and preferences, rather than on pathology, we find ourselves less fatigued by the weight of the difficulties we encounter. Since we can now put the problem in the spotlight, we can be more forthright in our questions and comments. As well as allowing us to connect with children "where they live," this practice stimulates our creativity as well. This approach is distinct from most open, unstructured play therapy, in that we collaborate closely with children in play that is actively focused on facing a problem. Children's sense of effectiveness as agents of change clearly increases when they experiment with possibilities in relationship to an externalized problem. In therapy with families the play is mainly with words, using humor wherever possible! But an externalizing conversation is easily enhanced with other forms of expression favored by children, such as play and expressive arts therapy. SELECTED READINGS (Emphasis on children) Epston, D. (1986). Nightwatching: An approach to night fears. Dulwich Centre Review, 28-39. Epston, D. (1989). Collected papers. Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. Epston, D. (Autumn, 1989a) Temper tantrum parties: Saving face, losing face, or going off your face! Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 12-26. Epston, D. (1993). Internalising discourses versus externalizing discourses. In S. Gilligan & R. Price (Eds.), Therapeutic Conversations (pp. 161-177). New York: Norton. Epston, D. (1994). Extending the conversation. Family Therapy Networker, 18(6), 31-37, 62-63. Epston, D., & Betterton, E. (1993). Imaginary Friends: Who are they? Who needs them? Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 2, 38-39. Epston, D., & Brock, P. (1989). Strategic approach to a feeding problem. In Epston, D. Collected Papers. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications. Epston, D., Morris, F., & Maisel, R. (1995). A narrative approach to so-called anorexia/bulimia. In Weingarten, K. (Ed.),Cultural Resistance: Challenging beliefs about men, women, and therapy . (pp. 69-96). New York: Haworth. Epston, D. & White, M. (1992). Experience, contradiction, narrative, and imagination: Selected papers of David Epston & Michael White, 1989-1991. Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. Epston, D., & White, M., & "Ben" (1995). Consulting your consultants: A means to the co-construction of alternative knowledges. In S. Friedman, (Ed.), The reflecting team in action: Collaborative practice in family therapy. (pp. 277-313). New York: Guilford. Epston, D., Lobovits,D., & Freeman, J. (1997). Annals of the "new Dave". Gecko, v.3 Freedman, J., & Combs G. (1996). Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities. New York: Norton. Freeman, J., Epston, D. & Lobovits, D. (1997). Playful approaches to serious problems: Narrative therapy with children and their families. New York: Norton. Freeman, J. C., & Lobovits, D. H. (1993). The turtle with wings. In S. Friedman (Ed.), The new language of change: Constructive collaboration in psychotherapy. (pp. 188-225). New York: Guilford. Lobovits, D. H., Maisel, R., & Freeman, J. C. (1995). Public practices: An ethic of circulation. In S. Friedman (Ed.), The reflecting team in action: Collaborative practice in family therapy. (pp. 223-256). New York: Guilford. Lobovits, D., & Prowell, J. (1995). Unexpected journey: Invitations to diversity. Paper from workshop presented at"Narrative Ideas and Therapeutic Practice," Fourth International Conference, Vancouver, BC. Lobovits, D. & Freeman, J. (1997) Destination Grump Station, Getting Off the Grump Bus. In D. Nylund and C. Smith (Eds.)Narrative Therapy with Children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford Press. Roth, S. & Epston, D. (1996). Developing externalizing conversations: An exercise. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 15(1), 5-12. Roth, S. & Epston, D. (1996a). Consulting the problem about the problematic relationship: An exercise for experiencing a relationship with an externalized problem. In M. Hoyt (Ed.) Constructive therapies: Volume 2., (148-162). New York: Guilford. Seymour, F. W. & Epston, D. (1992). An approach to childhood stealing with evaluation of 45 cases. In M. White & D. Epston (Eds.) Experience, contradiction, narrative, and imagination: Selected papers of David Epston & Michael White, 1989-1991. (pp. 189-206). Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. White, M. (1985). Fear busting and monster taming: An approach to the fears of young children. Dulwich Centre Review. White, M. (1986). Negative explanation, restraint and double description: A template for family therapy. Family Process, 25(2), 169-184. White, M., (Winter,1988). The process of questioning: A therapy of literary merit? Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 8-14. White, M. ,(Spring, 1988a). Saying hullo again: The incorporation of the lost relationship and the resolution of grief. Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 7-11. White, M. (1988/9). The externalizing of the problem and the re-authoring of lives and relationships. In M. White (Ed.),Selected Papers . (pp. 5-28). Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. White, M. (1989). Pseudo-encopresis: From avalanche to victory, from vicious to virtuous cycles. In Selected Papers.Adelaide Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. (pp. 115-124). Original work published in 1984, Family Systems Medicine, 2(2). White, M. (1991). Deconstruction and therapy. Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 3, 21-40. White, M. (1993). Commentary: The histories of the present. In S, Gilligan & R. Price (Eds.), Therapeutic Conversations (pp. 121-135). New York: Norton. White, M. (1995). Re-authoring lives: Interviews and essays. Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Consulting your consultants: The documentation of alternative knowledges. Dulwich Centre Newsletter. 4, 25-35. White, M., & Epston, D. (1990a). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York: Norton. http://www.narrativeapproaches.com/narrative%20papers%20folder/arts_process.htm Narrative Therapy with Children and their Families May 2000 Expressive Arts Workshop Materials © Jennifer Freeman M. F. C. C. , R. E. A. T.  http://www.narrativeapproaches.com/narrative%20papers%20folder/narrative_therapy.htm MULTI-MODAL NARRATIVE/EXPRESSIVE PLAY   Meditate: Guided relaxation. Be centered, contact inner wisdom/resourcefulness. Find a still/empty space. Allow an externalized problem to present itself. NB: It is OK if during the process, the problem changes or mutates. Best to just trust the process and find out what you can learn from this.It is optional to share with a partner at points throughout. Journal: Option I Consider these questions and take a few brief notes:How does this problem oppress you and limit your experience of yourself; relationships; actions and choices? How did the problem, like a weed, take hold in your life? What is the soil it grew in? (E.g. social /cultural--gender, class, race, socio-economic--messages and practices). How would you prefer things to be? Option 2: Have the problem write/tell a brief description of you, or tell your story from its point of view. E.g.: This is the way I (the problem) see Jack/Jackie. This is what I get him to be and do. This is what I keep her from doing. Here's what I need from him/her to keep me going. My main underpinnings are (social ideas /ideologies and practices; other habits, problems or ways of thinking e.g. perfectionism supported by insecurity). Let me tell you if there are times I am friend to him/her and when I am foe. Draw: the influence or effects of the problem on your life. Suggestions: #Your own inspiration. #A symbolic drawing. #A map of the problem's influence. #A cartoon series showing different areas of effect. # An intuitive drawing using your non-dominant hand and showing the influence of the problem in shapes and colors. Movement: Relax and play. Walk around in an everyday way. Now let the problem influence your walking. What happens when the problem is in charge? Notice your posture and breathing. Develop into a movement. What sounds emerge? Develop a transitional movement that loosens the grip of the problem. Explore pathways out of the problem into a preferred state. Expand into a movement of liberation. Draw: Your preferred relationship with the problem-- relatively free or empowered. Journal: 1. Jot down some notes Think of a time when you were able to have a better relationship with the problem, when you felt empowered or were free of it. Does the movement remind you of this? What relationship do you prefer to have with the problem that you have experienced before, or would like to experience more of? What becomes possible when you hold this image of yourself? 2. Now describe yourself as a loving friend might from the "alternative knowledge" or empowered point of view (rather than the problem's point of view). Try to incorporate past, present and future into your story. Relax & visualize: how do you imagine your life as you continue to embrace this direction in a week, or in a few years. What possibilities open up for you? Receive an eidetic image or symbol of this preferred relationship and healing and thank your inner guidance. Share with your partner or reflect in journal: What was meaningful to you in this exercise? What possibilities do you sense for yourself in your work?, Three essential strokes One minute each, fifty repetitions Mixed percussion Fast friction Walking the back The Coffee Break Vs. the Massage Break If your partner has been depending on stimulants for a pickup during the day, mas­sage will open up a new world of possibilities. The following strokes are ideal for hard­working people who want a quick energy boost -without a crash afterward. In the kitchen, living room, or office, a variety of percus­sion and friction movements, none of which require oiling or special preparations, can be used to alter your partner's mood. In fact, major changes start happening inside the body even before you finish massaging. In minutes, as oxygen levels throughout the massaged area climb, fatigue is diminished and a wonder­fully energetic feeling takes its place. Stiffness in the mus­cles and joints yields to the sort of fluid ease one usually experiences after a strenuous physical workout. Finally, as acids are flushed out of the tissues to be replaced by oxy­gen-enriched blood, irritabil­ity gives way to an optimistic can-do attitude. The effects are particularly impressive in situations where people must sit and concen­trate for long hours at a tele­phone, typewriter, or com­puter. As fatigue departs, endurance levels are dramati­cally improved. Apple Com­puter, Pacific Telesis, and Raychem, to name just a few. Do Schedule the massage when your partner is not likely to be inter­rupted. Be punctual. Get feedback on stroke and pressure preferences. Appear confident and organized. Bring with you everything you will need. Take whatever simple steps are possible to quiet the environment. Take all of your partner's requests seriously. Leave quietly as soon as the massage is finished. Don't Massage while your partner does something else. Don't get flustered if interruptions do occur. Encourage conversation. Comment on how tense your partner seems to be. Randomly explore your partner's body - people dislike being probed. Impose a complex routine of strokes to impress your partner. Introduce complicated rules or exotic theories. Needlessly take up your partner's time. Team Massage The most common problem one encounters when massag­ing busy executives is the overbooked itinerary. If your partner is too busy to sit still for a massage, try ganging up on her. Two pairs of hands can deliver twice as much sensation as one. The feeling of four hands thundering up and down the back during a pounding movement is so overwhelming that even the most self-absorbed type will stop talking and surrender to massage. They always thank you afterward. The Office Pillow If you can't locate a lounge in which to sprawl out, the mas­sage pillow becomes very important. With it, percus­sion and friction strokes for the upper back, the staple of on-the-job massage, become much more effective. Every worker needs a pillow large enough to support the full weight of the upper body when placed across the sur­face of a desk. Subdued col­ors are most inviting. The pillow should give good sup­port during any of the com­mon percussion movements, but remain firm enough to retain its shape. A removable cover makes occasional oiling possible, although a large towel can serve as well. Some offices have nothing at all that can be used as a mas­sage pillow, so it's wise to inquire ahead of time and provide one, if necessary, whenever you do massage at work. Mixed Percussion Percussion strokes are prob­ably the easiest to prepare for in massage. Don't bother hav­ing your partner lie down or remove any clothing; just grab a pillow and you're ready to go. In fact, if no pillow is handy, the head can be sup­ported on the hands without seriously compromising the stroke. For offices without lounges, or for a quick burst of energy around the house, nothing satisfies like a few minutes of intense percussion. Move up and down the back on both sides of the spine, but stay off the spine itself. Save your greatest pressures for the thickest muscles at the top of the back and across the shoulders. Generally, these movements are more effective over the rib cage, where bones provide a kind of natural cushioning effect. If you move to the lower back, follow the elevated ridge of muscles that runs parallel to the spine. Be care­ful not to pound on your part­ner's kidneys. Choose a per­cussion speed that you can comfortably maintain for a while. Rhythmic consistency is more important than raw speed. Start with pounding, the most intense percussion movement, and let it give way to a more gentle full hand cupping stroke Your partner may want to direct the percussion to a specific part of the back, listen for feedback. If nothing is actually said, remember that pleasurable moaning means that what you're doing feels good - keep it up for a while. Percussion strokes set up a vibration that carries right through the body. Work on the back for two or three minutes, and the feeling goes on after you stop. Fast Friction Immediately after percus­sion, while your partner is still relaxing on a pillow, try some fast friction. It's the per­fect stroke for that stiff neck or nagging pain at the top of the back. This energetic, immensely versatile friction variation can be used on almost every part of the body. It penetrates easily through clothing and works in nearly any setting, making it ideal for on-the-job massage. Fast friction is one of the rare mas­sage strokes that takes some real effort to sustain. How­ever, the extra exertion is always appreciated; no other stroke in massage produces a more intense feeling. It's shown here on the top of the back, the area most fre­quently requested by office workers, but the stroke is equally effective on any fleshy part of the body. The key to successful fast fric­tion is good anchoring, with­out which the mOvement becomes sloppy and random. To cover the whole upper back, push down between the shoulder blades with the flat surface of one hand, then work up to the lower neck. Anchor near the shoulder, pushing flesh toward your friction hand. You'll need to reposition your anchor hand frequently dur­ing fast friction. Rotate the friction hand while pressing down moderately hard. Re­member: friction strokes turn on the interior tissues, not the surface of the skin. You will feel the muscular interior of the upper back as you turn. Press in constantly with your anchor hand to confine the movement to the area under your friction hand - you don't want to shake the entire body. Your partner should feel an intense vibration that is confined to a single spot. Once you get the feel of the stroke, try increasing the speed. Fast friction can move almost as fast as you're able to go, but never push it to the limit - you'll have trouble sustaining the speed and con­trolling the stroke. Check with your partner to find out just how much speed he likes. Raking the Back Generally, most massage strokes stay off the spine itself, focusing instead on nearby muscle groups. When­ever they get tight, the long muscles that run parallel to the spine pull directly on spinal nerves. Repeated fre­quently enough, this stroke will go a long way toward relieving direct muscle pres­sure to the spine that keeps the nerves irritated. Have your partner lean for­ward and support the weight of his head either on his arms or a desktop pillow. Forming a rigid arch with both hands, begin stroking down both sides of the spine with your fingertips. Keep your fingers flexed and rigid throughout this stroke. That way you can glide across the surface of clothing while penetrating deep within. Start at the neck and pull straight down in a series of alternating, foot-long strokes. The stroke moves slowly down the back, cover­ing every portion five or six times. When you reach the bottom of the spine, start again from the top. Rake the whole back at least three times. Walking the Back Traditional back walking works only if you're consider­ably smaller and lighter than your partner. With a bit more effort much the same effect can be created using the fists. In fact, you can feel tensions with the hands that would go unnoticed beneath the feet. As your hands travel up and down the back, pressures can be directed with great preci­sion - you can actually feel tensed muscles begin to relax. This movement follows the same path you took during the raking stroke. You can stand directly behind your partner and do both sides of the spine at once. Make a fist and press the flat part of the knuckle into the long muscles that run parallel to the spine. As your fist sinks into the muscle, roll it for­ward slightly, pressing down hard as you roll. Start at the base of the neck with one fist, then repeat the movement immediately below with the other. Move all the way down the spine, pressing down first with one fist, then the other. Do each side of the spine twice; more if your partner asks for it. They usually do. Quick Friction for the Arms and Hands Although the hands and arms are used constantly at work, we tend to ignore their aches and pains, focusing instead on the shoulders or lower back. Given just five minutes to work, most masseurs will settle for the lower back and shoulders. Before you do, look closely at your partner's job. Are typing, computer work, or extended telephone conversations required? After massage, the feeling of new­found energy will be just as invigorating in the hands and arms as in the high stress areas of the back. This stroke also provides an excellent introduction to on­ the job massage. Even the most harried executive can be persuaded to rest an arm on the desk for a few minutes, or better yet, collapse on a couch in the company lounge. To massage the shoulders, circle your partner's wrist and pull it straight out until the whole arm is extended. Then rotate the same flat part of your knuckle on the muscular shoulder top. Remember: you need only a few minutes to get the fluid release effect started. With your partner lying on her back, anchor her extended arm at the wrist and press down on the fore­arm with the flat surface of your knuckle. Rotate slowly, moving up and down the arm from the wrist to the shoulder. Ease up over the exposed blood vessels at the wrist and inside the elbow, reserving your real pressures for the muscular forearm. Rotating the Bones of the Arm and Hand When was the last time your partner had her bones rotated? The hand is operated by remote control via long ten­dons and bones that begin at the elbow. As the hand and arm turn, the two descending bones, the radius and ulna, demonstrate one of the more extraordinary aspects of human anatomy by actually crossing at the center of the forearm. During massage, however, the bones of the forearm can be made to cross while simply rotating the complex joint at the wrist. Just as an effective foot mas­sage starts up at the knee, massage for the hand must consider parts of the body between the wrist and elbow. Grasp your partner's hand around her loosely clenched fingers (as shown on p. 138) and rotate the wrist once just to test the limits of the turn­ing arc. Pay close attention to the real limits of the arc, which will change several times in a single rotation. As you turn the wrist, the bones of the forearm will cross and uncross themselves. Rotate the hand three times in each direction. Then grasp your partner's hand tightly between both of your hands, keeping your thumbs on top and rotate your hands slowly. The bones inside her hand will move with your hands. Massaging on a couch, you can rotate the bones of her other hand by simply reaching across her body. There's no need for your partner to move at any time during this stroke. You do all the work for her. Throwing the Arm Here is the perfect movement to break the monotony of desk work. While an arm flies through the air, your partner does nothing at all. The large ball joint at the shoulder is vigorously exercised as circu­lation throughout the limb is stimulated. Lift your partner's arm first above the elbow, then at the wrist, until it's straight up in the air. Con­tinuing to hold steady at the wrist, bring the arm up over her head until you feel resis­tance. Then move the wrist and arm all the way down to a point near her waist. Move the arm back and forth sev­eral times until you are com­pletely familiar with the limits of the arc. Only then are you ready to begin the throwing part of the move­ment, starting with a small arc and enlarging it gradually. With your partner's arm fully extended, toss the wrist from one hand to the other. As you increase your throwing arc to the previously established limits, increase the speed. Let your arm give way a bit each time you catch your part­ner's wrist. Reach across your partner's body to throw the other arm. This is the fastest passive exercise. Arm throwing-a thriller. Real and Imaginary Massage Our Puritan heritage has assigned all physical contact between adults to two rather narrow categories: sexual or commercial. You're either making a sexual advance or you're making money when you touch other adults. Those engaged in commercial touch­ing are careful to remain as impersonal as possible lest they be accused of making a sexual advance. This unfortu­nate stereotyping has created serious confusion in the mas­sage profession. We have mas­sage as a familiar euphemism for prostitution vs. massage therapy in which the body is manipulated as impersonally as a collection of auto parts. Real massage, the kind that has been practiced every­where on earth since biblical times, is a sensual art: it works because it feels good. Sensuality is part of the wide spectrum of human feeling between sex and therapy. We live in a society that tries to deny its existence. In massage, this denial has created some bizarre imita­tions. A prostitute posing as masseuse fiddles around with a leg or an arm for a minute or two before getting down to business. The customer really didn't expect massage and none was offered. But the massage therapist posing as doctor has even less use for real massage. Any gadget that will confer authority on the practitioner and distance him from the sensual is embraced wholeheartedly. High-speed electrical devices, magnets, bits of stone, and vials of un­certain chemicals are solemnly pressed against the body. Hands are waved back and forth in the air in order to "balance" mysterious forces. When flesh finally does meet flesh, it's always to demon­strate an exotic theory, never simply to please. Bursts of nasty finger-poking alternate with violent manipulation of the joints because "blocked energy" must be liberated. Strokes wander aimlessly across the body, departing from the map of the circula­tory system, from nerve paths, and, finally, from all known systems. As the confu­sion mounts, charts covered with exotic oriental characters are rolled out, indicating that dozens of independent lines converge on the bottom of the spine, the side of an ear, or the back of one toe. And of course the magnets and bits of stone converge on those spots with full liturgical ceremony. Through it all the practi­tioner advances relentlessly on his helpless "patient;' self­righteously poking, jabbing, and pulling at the body in the name of "healing:' In man­ner, if not in practice, the therapist seeks to emulate the high priests of the medical profession (usually his sworn enemies). Ask a question and the authoritative bullying begins: your therapist knows things you don't know about: "meridians;' "auras;' "energy imbalances;' and "pressure points:' It's all very mysteri­ous and complex, and if it hurts, well ... it's good for you. Quackery, not prostitution, is the biggest problem facing massage today. We're in the process of rediscovering an ancient health principle that can enrich our lives, but for many people the quack and his spooky bag of tricks will be the first and last contact with massage. The human body, perhaps the most com­plex arrangement of matter in nature, remains a mystery to the quack. He usually has little understanding of anat­omy and no appreciation for the simple, sensual beauty of massage. Those who love massage understand that something primal pervades the experience - this is one of the most ancient human activities. Unfortunately, so is quackery. Thousands of years ago, when people massaged by the light of open fires, bead strokers and body pokers con­centrated on purging the body of evil spirits. Proving? That, in quackery, little has changed over the past few millenniums; self-promotion remains far more important than healing. The quack has always sought power by trans­forming the body into a supernatural freak show that only he can understand. But there is a gray zone, too, between quackery and real massage. Many earnest prac­titioners, concerned that their efforts will be confused with prostitution, go to great lengths to "dignify" massage. The airs and exotic terminol­ogy are usually abandoned the moment a partner begins to sink into that profound state of relaxation that only real massage can bring. How to Find a Good Professional Masseur Thinking of hiring a profes­sional masseur for yourself or your company? The rewards are great, but it pays to shop carefully. The right masseur, or team of masseurs, can change the whole working environment for a small or large company. Employees are happier, more relaxed; the workplace becomes a pleasant environ­ment where one feels good. Absenteeism declines, and productivity, that elusive goal, goes up. Do something this nice for your employees, and they're going to return the favor. How much is stress costing you? Are your employees attempting to tack ambitious exercise programs onto the workload - failing - then turning to drugs to relax? Professional massage is less expensive and time-consum­ing than any of the standard medical services. You'll see dramatic results after just five minutes of massage two or three times a week; each ses­sion takes less time than the average coffee break. If stress is a serious problem at your company, massage can be­come a kind of preventive medicine, permitting the doc­tor to do other things. Which would you rather pay: the masseur or the workman's compensation claims? The number of good profes­sional masseurs is growing every year, but with no stan­dardized licensing proce­dures, you have no way of knowing what to expect until the massage begins. Never­theless, setting up a corporate massage program is one of the most pleasant tasks in business, simply because the interviewer will be massaged by so many of the job appli­cants. But there's more to the interviewing job than collaps­ing on a couch in your office while your neck and shoul­ders are kneaded. Use the following guidelines to pick the right professional for your company. First, find out if any com­panies in your area have already set up massage pro­grams - their recommenda­tions are a good place to begin. Larger companies require a team of masseurs with a common philosophy­ program. Choose a program that's flexible enough to fit into your business day. If there's no separate lounge area in your company that can be used for massage, a team should be able to adapt to conditions in the office itself without causing any problems. If necessary, mas­sage can be going on at one desk while work proceeds at the next. Again, the best way to audition a masseur, once references have been checked and preliminary interviews completed, is on your own body. Each masseur should be able to continue any stroke for at least five minutes with­out breaking rhythm. Ideally, he (or she) should be as effi­cient and invisible as a good waiter. And as silent. If you're planning an extended massage program for a larger company, hire masseurs who keep simple records concerning the condi­tion and special needs of each employee. Finally, look closely at your masseur's gen­eral presentation. A calm, confident manner will help put your employees at ease, while an officious, overly busy approach will ruin the experience. A masseur should be clean, with carefully trimmed fingernails, and a pleasant personality. How do you separate the quacks from the serious masseurs? Beware of any prac­titioner who attempts to justify painful treatments in the name of massage. The quack shows up with an incomprehensible program that invariably in­cludes plenty of nasty poking and twisting "because it's good for you." At best the quack is annoying and a waste of time, worst actu­ally dangerous. Turn one loose in your office, and your employees become a testing ground for excruciating "body therapies;' thereby creating more, not less, work for the company doctor. The responsible practitioner, on the other hand, will respect your rights throughout a mas­sage (see "The Massage Bill of Rights"). It is, after all, your body, not a pet theory, that matters most. Above all a masseur must be flexible enough to meet your personal needs. This means that you should get exactly what you desire (even if it means skip­ping the masseur's forty­seven-point program). If you want your shoulders kneaded for five minutes straight, ask, and if you get an argument, move on to another masseur. Much the same criteria can be used to hire a personal masseur. Naturally, it becomes even more impor­tant to be sure the masseur will be sensitive to your own specialized needs. People come in various body types, and a good masseur will rec­ognize yours, immediately seeking out the trouble spots and lingering on the most pleasure-sensitive areas. Nevertheless, your request, if you feel like making any, should come first. And after­ward you should feel more relaxed than before.   Taken from SUPER MASSAGE, Simple Techniques for instant relaxation by GORDON INKELES (Author of the ART OF SENSUAL MASSAGE) Copyright 1988 Gordon Inkeles, first published in Great Britain in 1989 by Judy Piatkus (Publishers)Ltd of 5Windmill Street, London W1, Printed and bound in Great Britain by Butler & Tanner Ltd, Frome and London, Designed and produced by Jon Goodchild/Triad, Photographed by Gordon Inkeles, Illustrations by Sigga Bjornsson, Reprinted in 1989 and twice in 1990. Pages 132 to 143., , , , The acupuncturist corrects an imbalance in the body's energy flow, or Chi, by inserting needles at specific points. This woman is being treated for hay fever. A traditional Chinese acupuncture chart shows meridians, or channels of the body's energy flow, and pressure points. The bust below shows the meridians on the head and shoulders and the poi nts where the needles should be inserted. An ancient Chinese technique, acupuncture works by releasing the body's vital energy, known as Chi. Once this life force is flowing freely, a number of physical problems can be relieved, from headache to asthma. In China, Japan and many other parts of the Far East, it is one of the most common forms of treatment. It is particularly effective in dealing with pain and with specific physical problems, such as arthritis, asthma, headache and eczema. A VITAL FORCE Chinese medicine regards 'Chi' as the body's vital energy and it flows through channels called meridians. The meridians are separate from the circulatory or nervous systems. They are an independent network and have acupuncture points dotted along them. Chi comprises the two elements known as 'yin' and 'yang'. These are complex entities but yin can be regarded as the male principle. Its opposite, yang, is the female principle. In health, yin and yang are in a delicately fluctuating balance with each other. However, if they are thrown out of balance, the Chi can no longer flow freely through the body and the result of this is illness. The acupuncturist will study your eyes, skin and tongue to gain an impression of your general state of health. A pale tongue, for instance, may be a sign of a poor diet or anaemia. Acupuncture facts In 1979, the World Health Organisation recognized acupuncture as a successful treatment for 40 diseases, including ulcers, migraines and painful menstruation. Acupuncture has remarkable pain-killing powers and has even been used during surgery. This may be because, when a needle is inserted into an acupuncture point, the body releases its own natural painkillers called endorphins. The origins of this ancient technique are shrouded in mystery. The founder is thought to have been Shen Nung, also known as the Yellow Emperor, who lived around 2700BC. Acupuncture can be successful with patients suffering from emotional or psychological problems - such as anxiety and depression - as well as physical conditions.                           CAUSES OF ILL HEALTH The imbalance between yin and yang can spring from a variety of causes, such as poor diet, lack of exercise, bad posture, emotional strain and lack of sleep. If the flow of Chi is disrupted, it won't reach certain areas of the body and often a painful condition will develop there, such as sciatica. If the Chi is blocked, a build-up can cause inflammatory conditions such as arthritis or a migraine. A lack of Chi can lead to a lack of energy. The acupuncturist aims to set the Chi flowing freely. He looks at specific ailments as well as your breathing and your voice and then take 12 different pulses, six at each wrist, each of which relates to different functions of the body. Finally, he may ask you about your lifestyle and if your symptoms change at different times of the day. PRECISE POINTS Having made a diagnosis, the acupuncturist decides where the Chi has been disrupted and inserts sterile needles at the relevant acupuncture points. He may insert the needles around the problem area or in a different part of the body. For instance, he may treat a migraine by inserting needles in the hand, knee, foot or ear lobe. PAINLESS TECHNIQUE The actual treatment - inserting the needles - should not cause any pain. The acupuncturist may insert them just below the surface of the skin, or several centimetres deep. He may leave them in place, or he may rotate them in position. The needles may also be heated with a dried herb, moxa, on the tips - a process known as moxibustion. Treatments can last up to an hour and you will usually need a course, depending on the condition. Many people use acupuncture as a successful means of giving up smoking. It can also be used to treat other addictions - to alcohol, sleeping pills or other drugs.     Taken from THE HEALTH FILE  A Complete Medical Encyclopedia, A MARSHALL CAVENDISH REFERENCE COLLECTION by DR JOHN CORMACK, WEEKLY Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Singapore Malta RSA Other Countries Namibia. DR JOHN CORMACK, BDS MB BS MRCS LRCP, is the medical consultant to The Health File. The senior partner in an Essex­ based practice, he is also a member of the General Medical Council and has written for numerous magazines and news­papers as well as for the medical press. He is a regular broadcaster on television and radio and has scripted a number of award-winning educational videos.   Copyright Marshall Cavendish 1995, Printed in Great Britain, Published by Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd, 119 Wardour Street, London WIV 3TD (Due to the urgency of education on this site, spelling will be corrected at a later stage….All photos and charts in the  script have been left out)., Keep a crystal near to hand and, it is claimed, you'll enhance your general well-being. Crystal healers may use up to 50 different types of crystals to treat different conditions. Your own personal crystal is thought to help  keep  your natural energy forces in balance, thus  maintaining good health. Crystals placed on the energy points or 'chakras' of the body are thought to amplify the body's own healing process. The idea of curing pain with a lump of rock may sound far-fetched, but precious stones have been used for healing since ancient times and many people believe they are just as effective today. Why would someone take ci;)ian amethyst to bed with .. them, unless they had forgotten to take off their jewellery? The reason is simple, if unusual: putting a lump of amethyst under your pillow is the prescription for insomnia recommended by healers who work with crystals. In the same way that alternative therapies such as acupuncture and aromatherapy were once labelled cranky but are now widely practised, healing with crystals looks set to gain the same level of acceptance. It should also be regarded as complementary to orthodox medicine, rather than as a replacement for it. CRYSTAL POWER Crystal healers concentrate on the seven' chakras', or energy points of the body. Each chakra is thought to govern a separate area of bodily or mental functions. Techniques vary, but typically, a healer will place one or a group of crystals on a chakra, or perform a type of , crystal massage', rotating a crystal in small circles over a chakra. As with acupuncture, the idea is to clear any blockages in the life force flowing through the body and correct any imbalances. The seven chakras are: the crown chakra on the top of head, which governs the glandular system; the third eye chakra, between the eyes, which governs fear and spiritual insight; the throat chakra at the centre of the throat, which governs the metabolism; the heart chakra at the centre of the chest, which controls the immune system; the solar plexus chakra at the navel, which is for the pancreas; the spleen chakra below the navel, controlling adrenalin production, and finally the base chakra above the groin, which governs sexuality. How can a piece of inanimate rock possibly heal the human body? Crystal healers believe that your body acts like the battery of a quartz watch, stimulating a crystal's natural vibrations. These vibrations in turn influence and energize the body's own healing powers. It is also thought that using a personal crystal can promote and maintain good health. CHOOSING YOUR CRYSTAL You'll find crystals for sale at gift shops and fairs. You need one which is large enough to provide a focus during the healing process. A crystal the size of a small apple, which can be grasped firmly in the palm of one hand, is ideal for most healing techniques. Crystal healers emphasize that you should rely on your instincts and pick the crystal to which you feel strongly attracted. This will be the one most closely in tune with your body's unique aura. Crystals are thought to be affected by the emotional discharges of everyone who handles them, so it's suggested that you purify your crystal by soaking it in seawater or warm water with sea salt dissolved in it. Leave the crystal for at least 36 hours, but for no longer than 70.   WHICH CRYSTAL? Specific healing powers for different conditions are attributed to different types of crystal: AGATE: Relieves tension and anxiety. Use a couple of small ones as worry beads, jiggling them around in the palm of your hand. AMETHYST: Place one under your pillow to help you sleep. The Romans believed they prevented hangovers and used to drink out of goblets studded with them. BLOODSTONE: Said to be a very calming stone when held in the hand and to help regulate an erratic menstrual cycle. JADE: The stone of friendship, this is claimed to help overcome shyness. Drinking water in which jade has been soaked is believed to boost the immune system. QUARTZ: Good for headaches. Lie down and place three of these crystals on your forehead - one pointing up to the crown and two pointing towards it from the left and right sides. ROSE QUARTZ: Also for headaches and for relieving the symptoms of depression. Hold it in your right hand and think about your problem. Then press the crystal lightly against your forehead. Next, breathe into the crystal, letting it absorb your negative thoughts. TOURMALINE: Effective for emotional upset. If you've been rejected by someone you love, keep this stone near you and clasp it as often as possible.   SELF-HEALING One of the simplest ways to benefit from crystal power is to keep one by you day and night. Its influence will interact with your body's electrical impulses, restoring any imbalances. For a quick pick-up, hold a crystal in your left hand, pointing towards your wrist, and one in your right hand, pointing away from it. Hold for five to ten minutes, resting your hands on a table if you need to. To clear up minor skin blemishes and improve the texture of your skin, soak a crystal of your choice in your bathwater for 10 minutes before you get in. Red coral and aventurine are thought to be especially effective. Drink crystal water to help flush toxins out of your body. Prepare the drink by leaving a crystal in a glass of water overnight. Then drink the 'charged' water first thing in the morning.   Taken from THE HEALTH FILE  A Complete Medical Encyclopedia, A MARSHALL CAVENDISH REFERENCE COLLECTION, NATURE’S CLINIC by DR JOHN CORMACK, WEEKLY Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Singapore Malta RSA Other Countries Namibia. DR JOHN CORMACK, BDS MB BS MRCS LRCP, is the medical consultant to The Health File. The senior partner in an Essex­ based practice, he is also a member of the General Medical Council and has written for numerous magazines and news­papers as well as for the medical press. He is a regular broadcaster on television and radio and has scripted a number of award-winning educational videos.   Note: Where gender is unspecified, individuals are referred to as 'he', This usage is for convenience only and not intended to imply that all doctors and patients are male. Medicheck charts are only a rough guide to diagnosis, Always seek medical advice if you have worrying symptoms. Copyright Marshall Cavendish 1995, Printed in Great Britain, Published by Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd, 119 Wardour Street, London WIV 3TD , We all feel fed up and miserable from time to time. But depression is more than just a feeling of unhappiness. It's a major health disorder that causes untold suffering to millions of people. We expect to feel sad if someone close to us is ill or dies, we lose our job, or a relationship flounders. Any event that involves loss or disap­pointment will make us unhappy. But sometimes the misery just doesn't go away, or a sense of hopelessness Just comes out of the blue for no obvious reason at all. Whether there's a cause for it or not, depression drains us of energy and our ability to enjoy life. It can make us feel worthless, leaving us unable to achieve anything at all. TYPES OF DEPRESSION Depression can range from a normal mood to a severe clinical disorder. Clinical depression is usually classed as major or minor. Major depression is defined as a low mood and the inability to be interested or take pleasure in one's surroundings for at least two weeks. This is usually accompanied by a characteristically negative way of thinking, including guilt, pessimism, feelings of personal worthlessness and ideas about suicide and being better off dead. DIAGNOSIS Clinical depression is a serious medical condition that can last for years if untreated. Change in sleep patterns Restlessness or lethargy Lack of energy or fatigue Loss of concentration Thoughts of death and suicide Loss of confidence Appetite or weight change To be diagnosed as major, depres­sion must include at least four of the following classic seven symptoms: low self-esteem or guilt; loss of con­centration; thoughts of suicide; loss of en­ergy and extreme tiredness; loss or in­crease of appetite and weight; insomnia or excessive sleeping; and either a slowing down or a constant sense of agitation. MORE THAN LOW MOODS Special brain scans can show up differences in the metabolic activity in the tissues of a normal person and one who is severely depressed. Minor depression is defined as having a low mood and also showing fewer than four of the symptoms that characterize major depression. People who have a low mood but show few of the classic seven symptoms have subclinical depression. If left untreated, an episode of depression lasts between six and nine months, on average, However, another class of depression has recently been recognized. Called recurrent brief depression, these bouts of severe depression last one to 14 days and then vanish, but can occur up to 20 times a year. WHY IT OCCURS Depression is thought to be caused by a reduction of certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmit­ters, These chemicals affect our mood by stimulating brain cells. But no one really knows why depression develops, Sometimes it seems to come out of the blue, and sometimes it's an obvious response to life. A range of internal and external factors can trigger changes in our mood. EXTREMELY COMMON Depression can affect anyone at any age, but some of us are more vulnerable to it than others.  At any one time, around five per cent of us are suffering clinical depression. The most severe forms are more common in middle and old age, and perhaps up to a third of us will experience a milder form of depression. Recurrent brief depres­sion is thought to affect up to one in 10 of us - men and women are affected equally, But it is not yet certain how many of us will suffer from depression at some point in our lifetimes. MEN AND WOMEN Women are twice as likely as men to be depressed. This is partly because of hormonal factors, and also partly because women with young children may be vulnerable to social stress, Women are also more likely to go to the doctor and admit that they feel depressed. Can children get depressed? Yes they can, but the symptoms are often different than with adults. The most common symptom of depression in children is withdrawal from family and friends. Other signs include poor school achievement, truanting or aggressive behaviour. Tearfulness is unusual in children. Depression in teenagers may often be misinterpreted as moodiness, but up to one in 10 ado­lescents report episodes of depression. There may also be link between depression and genetic makeup. Recent medical evidence suggests it may run in families. People whose mothers were absent during their childhood, either because their mother died or was herself too depressed to adequately care for her family, are at higher risk of depression. GETTING EMOTIONAL Your psychological profile is also significant Psychoanalysts believe that people who repress their emotions, particu­larly anger, are vulnerable to depression, People who have been bereaved and who don't weep or talk about their sadness - the classic stiff upper lip ­often get stuck in a long period of depression. EXTERNAL CAUSES Severe illness often triggers depression. A strong support network of family and friends can make all the difference in your ability to cope. There are also a number of external causes that are traditionally known to be a cause of depression, For exam­ple, illness or injury and any number of stressful life events, such as bereavement, job loss or the breakup of a relationship, are likely to cause an unhappy mood, Lack of family and friends as a network of support is a contributing factor. SEASONAL CHANGES Depression can follow a viral infection, and it may be set off by low levels of sunlight in winter (a condition called Seasonal Affective Disorder). Lack of sleep due to waking up at dawn is a common symptom of depression. It may make the person feel worse and the depression harder to resolve. Antidepressants are extremely effective at relieving disabling symptoms, thus enabling the sufferer to cope with day to day living, But finding the right one is vital to successful treatment.   HORMONAL CHANGES Hormonal factors play a large part. Depression is very common among women just before their periods (PMS or premenstrual syndrome), immediately after giving birth (post-natal depression) and around menopause. These are all times of hormonal change and many doctors believe that it is the reduction in the levels of oestrogen which is responsible for so much female unhappiness, However, other doctors believe that these types of depression may have nothing to do with hormones and everything to do with social at­titudes towards women. The 'baby blues' affects up to half of all new mothers, but this short­lived mood of tearfulness that occurs a few days after giving birth is not true post-natal depression. PND is a distinct condition which affects up to 15 per cent of women in the six months to a year after having their baby. Symptoms include a low mood, anxiety, irritability, tearfulness and tiredness. Some doctors believe PND is caused by social factors such as lack of support and social isolation after having a baby. They say that counselling is the best form of treatment. Others believe that PND is caused by a hormonal imbalance and often prescribe oestrogen (though some prescribe progesterone). Antidepressants are often prescribed, but women caring for a baby should not be given medication with a strong sedative effect. Breastfeeding women may pass some drugs into the baby's system via the breast milk. GETTING HELP Only about half of all people with major depression are identified as such by their family doctor, This is because anyone who is depressed may find it hard to talk about how terrible they feel. They often consult their doctor with one of the physical symptoms of depression, such as constipation, sleep problems or weight loss, but are reluctant to specify that they feel unhappy or depressed. A number of people don't want treatment and simply accept their low mood. But effective treatments for depression do exist. ANTI-DEPRESSANT DRUGS Many people are reluctant to take drugs for depression because they think that medication will stop them sorting out their problems. But relieving the symptoms of depression means the sufferer can get on with life, instead of getting trapped in the classic downward spiral of decreasing energy and self-confidence. TYPES OF ANTIDEPRESSANT There are several classes of anti­depressant drugs, all of which act in different ways on the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. The most common are tricyclics, of which there are various types. Some improve sleep, while others are given to people who feel lethar­gic. Side-effects include drying of the mouth and blurred vision, but these usually soon wear off. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may be prescribed when people don't respond to the tricyclics. These can have major side-effects and interact with other drugs. Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have fewer side-effects but may cause nausea. Prozac comes from a new class of antidepressants known as specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THEY? Antidepressants are beneficial for treating major depressions, but less effective for milder depression. Around three-quarters of people with depression respond to them. They are not addictive, but they have to be taken for as long as six to nine months after the depression has lifted to be successful. Though antidepressants are effective, evidence suggests that a combination of anti-depressant drugs plus psychotherapy is the best treatment of all. BENEFITS OF THERAPY When we become depressed, we can get stuck in negative thought processes. If we lose our job, we start thinking that we'll never work again. If a relationship breaks up, we imagine that we're unlovable. Cognitive psychotherapy, in which the therapist teaches you to identify gloomy ways of looking at life and replace them with more positive attitudes, can help. But almost any form of talking therapy is useful. It can draw the depressed person out of their bleak world, and help them to understand their feelings and what steps they can take to help themselves. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to have an uplifting effect on depressed people as well as improving mood generally. The theory is that aerobic exercise triggers the release of certain chemicals in the brain called endorphins. These are the body's natural opiates that make us feel good. Depressed people seem to have lower levels of endorphins. Studies have shown the medical benefits of laughter. It reduces stress and increases the output of hormones which can help overcome depression. OTHER TREATMENTS  Hormonal depression in women can sometimes be relieved by taking oestrogen or progesterone. As a very last resort, people with major depression who have not re­sponded to other treatments may be admitted to hospital for ECT (electro-convulsive therapy). It's not known exactly how ECT works. The theory is that the elec­tric shock causes a fit, which seems to lift depression. However, it can cause confusion and short-term memory loss, and both therapy and medication should be tried first. • Regular aerobic exercise oxy­genates the brain and raises levels of endorphins, the body's natural painkillers • Smile at people - even if you don't feel happy, your brain doesn't know and starts to imagine that you're feel­ing well • Laughter is good for you. Watch comedy shows on TV, hire funny films, or get a group of friends togeth­er for a good laugh • Set yourself easy achievable daily tasks, like writing a letter or doing the laundry • Try speaking to yourself positively, tell yourself how well you're coping during this difficult time   Taken from THE HEALTH FILE  A Complete Medical Encyclopedia, A MARSHALL CAVENDISH REFERENCE COLLECTION, NATURE’S CLINIC by DR JOHN CORMACK, WEEKLY Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Singapore Malta RSA Other Countries Namibia. DR JOHN CORMACK, BDS MB BS MRCS LRCP, is the medical consultant to The Health File. The senior partner in an Essex­ based practice, he is also a member of the General Medical Council and has written for numerous magazines and news­papers as well as for the medical press. He is a regular broadcaster on television and radio and has scripted a number of award-winning educational videos.   Note: Where gender is unspecified, individuals are referred to as 'he', This usage is for convenience only and not intended to imply that all doctors and patients are male. Medicheck charts are only a rough guide to diagnosis, Always seek medical advice if you have worrying symptoms. Copyright Marshall Cavendish 1995, Printed in Great Britain, Published by Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd, 119 Wardour Street, London WIV 3TD     , , DIFFICULTY SLEEPING - There are many reasons why you might have trouble sleeping. Some may be minor, while others may require medical treatment. Use this chart if you often lie awake at night, wake at odd hours or if you feel tired in the morning Do you find it difficult to get to sleep?                    Are you often tense and irritable during the day? Do you find that you keep waking up very early in the morning and that it's then difficult to get back to sleep again? If you are female, is there a chance that you might be pregnant? You could be suffering from anxiety. Try to cut back on the stress in your life. Make time to learn and practise a relaxation therapy such as yoga or some form of meditation. When you lie awake, are you preoccupied with problems? Do you feel a failure or that your life has no purpose? When you wake. do you find that you often feel breathless? It's quite common to have trouble sleeping during pregnancy. Often there is a need to urinate during the night. If this is your problem, cut back the amount you drink in the evening. If you are constantly tired, consult your doctor. Difficulty sleeping is often a sign of depression. Discuss this with your doctor. Attacks of breathlessness could signify a heart condition. If you are under 40, however, the problem is more likely to be asthma. Discuss this with your doctor. Have you been drinking a lot of tea, coffee or cola drinks during the day? Do you often go to bed feeling overfull or after having drunk a lot of alcohol? Have you recently given up sleeping pills or tranquillizers? Are you generally an inactive person who takes very little exercise? Are you aged 60 or over? Too much caffeine overstimulates the central nervous system and can interfere with your sleep. Some people are particularly sensitive to caffeine while others can consume little or none without suffering adverse effects. Eating and drinking too much late at night can cause sleeplessness. Though alcohol initially helps you get to sleep, too much can cause you to wake during the night or too early in the morning. Drugs like these can upset normal sleeping patterns and it may take several weeks before your body learns to readjust. The withdrawal symptoms should eventually pass. Your body may not be tired enough to allow you to fall asleep easily. Try to get some exercise during the day. Do not exercise too close to bedtime, as this could make the situation worse. The amount of sleep we need and the way in which we take it often changes as we get older. Elderly people often fall into a pattern of waking early and then taking an afternoon nap. As long 'as you don't feel sleepy or unwell, there's nothing to worry about. Cut down on your caffeine intake. Switch to decaffeinated drinks or herbal teas or try cutting out caffeine altogether. If you're at all concerned about the length of time this is taking, discuss it with your doctor. Try to adjust to your new sleeping pattern by finding more to do in your waking hours.  Taken from THE HEALTH FILE  A Complete Medical Encyclopedia, A MARSHALL CAVENDISH REFERENCE COLLECTION,MEDICHECK  by DR JOHN CORMACK, WEEKLY Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Singapore Malta RSA Other Countries Namibia. DR JOHN CORMACK, BDS MB BS MRCS LRCP, is the medical consultant to The Health File. The senior partner in an Essex­ based practice, he is also a member of the General Medical Council and has written for numerous magazines and news­papers as well as for the medical press. He is a regular broadcaster on television and radio and has scripted a number of award-winning educational videos.  Note: Where gender is unspecified, individuals are referred to as 'he', This usage is for convenience only and not intended to imply that all doctors and patients are male. Medicheck charts are only a rough guide to diagnosis, Always seek medical advice if you have worrying symptoms. Copyright Marshall Cavendish 1995, Printed in Great Britain, Published by Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd, 119 Wardour Street, London WIV 3TD , , , , , , , CHANGING YOUR PERSONAL APPEARANCE - There comes a point in anyone's life where she needs to change She wants to undergo metamorphosis. This is not easy to do when you do not know where to start. So in case you are one of those people who want to undergo an abrupt change in life, seek the advice of a fashion stylist. An image consultant is not just an expert in dressing up. A fashion stylist is also an image consultant. Fashion stylists help people in shaping or reshaping their characters. So, when you really want change, you can change the way you look with guidance from an image consultant. Being a wall flower usually happens with a person who doesn't have any confidence. So how do you let the confidence in a very timid person spark? If you are a timid person and was born a wall flower, you can do something about that. You can hire a fashion stylist. An image consultant would help you build up your confidence that would let you shine. From being a wall flower, you would eventually be the life of the party. Perhaps, you are always called the ugly-duckling. Maybe your appearance is somewhat different from your brothers and sisters. But it doesn't necessarily mean that you are ugly. What you need to do is to discover your inner beauty and let it come out. If you do not think that you are gorgeous, how would different people believe that? Always think that you are beautiful and others would see that. One tip is to look in the mirror every morning and smile to yourself and say to yourself that you are good-looking. If you want to know more ideas, talk to a fashion stylist. She knows better. If you've always been in the crowd, perhaps it is now the time for you to stand out. Do not be contented with being in and being just like any others. People are born to be distinctive and not a copycat. So as to do this, you need to uncover your personal uniqueness. You need to create a unique persona. Instead of being just a follower, why not be the standard? Having some individuals to look up to you is a really nice feeling. Blending in the crowd is just like throwing a needle in the haystack. No one would see you and you would soon be irrelevant. Ask the help of an image consultant and you would certainly find your way out of the crowd. Maybe a new haircut or a brand new wardrobe may spice up your life. Whatever that thing is, a fashion stylist would surely find that out for you. A fashion stylist is more than just an outfit consultant and a personal shopper. They create images through clothes and accessories. They build images by bringing out self-confidence. A fashion stylist is a professional in creating one's image. Remember that even celebrities hire fashion stylists. So if you want to get out of the box, ask help from them. From being boring, you can be stunning and exciting. http://8gigusb.com/articles/?change-your-personal-appearance-with-assistance-coming-from-a-fashion-stylist-407  , ,  Theories of Why We Sleep: Scientists have explored the question of why we sleep from many different angles. They have examined, for example, what happens when humans or other animals are deprived of sleep. In other studies, they have looked at sleep patterns in a variety of organisms to see if similarities or differences among species might reveal something about sleep's functions. Yet, despite decades of research and many discoveries about other aspects of sleep, the question of why we sleep has been difficult to answer. The lack of a clear answers to this challenging question does not mean that this research has been in vain. In fact, we now know much more about the function of sleep, and scientists have developed several promising theories to explain why we sleep. In light of the evidence they have gathered, it seems likely that no single theory will ever be proven correct. Instead, we may find that sleep is explained by two or more of these explanations. The hope is that by better understanding why we sleep, we will learn to respect sleep's functions more and enjoy the health benefits it affords. Inactivity Theory One of the earliest theories of sleep, is the adaptive or evolutionary theory, inactivity at night - adaptation - serves as survival function - keeps organisms out of harm's way at times when they would be particularly vulnerable. Animals that are able to stay still during these periods of vulnerability have an advantage over other animals that remain active. These animals do not have accidents during activities in the dark - are not killed by predators. Through natural selection, this behavioral strategy became what we now recognize as sleep. A counter-argument to this theory - it is always safer to remain conscious to be able to react to an emergency (even if lying still in the dark at night). So there does not seem to be any advantage of being unconscious and asleep if it comes to  safety. Energy Conservation Theory One of strongest factors in natural selection - competition for and effective utilization of energy resources. Less apparent to people living in societies in which food sources are plentiful. Primary function of sleep - reduce individual's energy demand and xpenditure during part of day or night, (especially at times when it is least efficient to search for food). Research shows reduction in energy metabolism during sleep (10 percent in humans, more in other species). E.g, both body temperature and caloric demand decrease during sleep, compared to wakefulness. Such evidence supports proposition that one of primary functions of sleep - to help organisms conserve their energy resources. Many scientists consider this theory to be related to, and part of, the inactivity theory. Restorative Theories Another explanation for why we sleep is based on the long-held belief that sleep in some way serves to "restore" what is lost in the body while we are awake. Sleep provides the opportunity for the body to repair and rejuvenate itself. In recent years, these ideas have gained support from empirical evidence collected in human and animal studies. Most striking of these - animals deprived entirely of sleep lose all immune function and die in a matter of weeks - further supported by findings that many of the major restorative functions in the body like muscle growth, tissue repair, protein synthesis, and growth hormone release occur mostly, or in some cases only, during sleep. Other rejuvenating aspects of sleep are specific to brain and cognitive function. E.g, while awake, the neurons in the brain produce adenosine, a by-product of the cells' activities. Build-up of adenosine in the brain - thought to be one factor that leads to perception of being tired. (Incidentally, this feeling counteracted by use of caffeine, which blocks actions of adenosine in brain - keeps us alert.) Scientists think that this build-up of adenosine during wakefulness may promote "drive to sleep." As long as we are awake, adenosine accumulates and remains high. During sleep, the  body has a chance to clear adenosine from the system - more alert when awake. Brain Plasticity Theory Most recent and compelling explanation - based on findings that sleep is related to changes in structure and organization of brain. This phenomenon, known as brain plasticity - not entirely understood - but connection to sleep has several implications. E.g it becomes clear that sleep plays a role in brain development in infants and young children. Infants spend about 13 to 14 hours per day sleeping. About half of that time is spent in REM sleep - the stage in which most dreams occur. The link between sleep and brain plasticity becomes clear in adults as well. This is seen in the effect that sleep and sleep deprivation have on people's ability to learn and perform a variety of tasks. Although these theories remain unproven, science has made a tremendous stride to discover what happens during sleep, what mechanisms in the body control cycles of sleep and wakefulness. While this research does not directly answer the question, "Why do we sleep?" it sets the stage to put the question in a new context and generate new knowledge about this essential part of life., Braille music - Braille music is a Braille code that allows music to be notated using Braille cells so that music can be read by visually impaired musicians. The Braille music system was originally developed by Louis Braille Braille music uses the same six-position Braille cell as literary braille. However braille music assigns an entirely separate meaning to each braille symbol or group of symbols, different from literary braille, and has its own syntax and abbreviations. Almost anything that can be written in standard print music notation can be written in braille music notation as well. However, braille music notation is a completely independent and well-developed notation system with its own conventions and syntax. The world's largest collection of braille music is located at the National Library for the Blind, in Stockport, UK. Learning Braille music Braille music, although different from print music, is in general neither easier nor more difficult to learn. Visually impaired musicians gain the same benefits by becoming musically literate learning to read braille music as do sighted musicians who learn to read print music. Visually impaired musicians who become highly proficient performers without ever learning to read music have the same difficulties and disadvantages as sighted musicians in the same situation. In either case, the illiterate musician is completely dependent upon others for learning new music or new parts. And it is very difficult for the advanced musician to have the patience to spend months or years re-visiting the rudiments of music in order to learn to read and write what can already be performed with ease. Visually impaired musicians can begin learning to read braille music about the time they have reasonable competence reading Grade 2 literary braille. Teaching Braille music Braille music for beginners, like print music for beginners, is quite simple. Sighted or visually impaired music teachers with no previous knowledge of braille music can easily learn the rudiments of braille music notation and keep a step or two ahead of the beginning student who is learning braille music. Some common print method books are available in music braille, so that the sighted teacher can use a print version and the visually impaired student the brailled version (or the other way around). Information about courses and materials for learning braille music can be found in the Braille Music FAQ. Transcribing music into Braille Much commonly-used music has been transcribed into braille. In the U.S. this is available from the National Library Service (NLS) of the Library of Congress (free for qualified individuals) and through other sources. Most countries have a national library similar to the NLS. See the Braille Music FAQ for details. However, many visually impaired musicians require a good deal of music that has never before been transcribed to braille music. In the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and many other countries, there is a network of braille music transcribers who can transcribe such music. Another option is to use a computer-music system. Such systems typically allow a sighted or visually impaired user to enter music into a computerized music notation program. The software then automatically converts the print notation that has been entered into braille music notation. Such software programs are Dancing Dots. Toccata. FreeDots (open source licensed under the GNU General Public License) BrailleMUSE (free web application software) The Braille Music KIT works in both directions: musicians can create a braille music score that can then be converted to print music, or a sighted musician can use Finale to create a print score which is then be converted to braille musi Pitch and rhythm In practice beginners first learn the most common rhythmic value (8th, quarter, half, and whole notes) and ignore the other possibility. For advanced students there is never rhythmic ambiguity between the two values because the musical context, including meter signature and bar lines, makes the intended rhythmic value clear. For instance, in a measure of 4/4 time that includes only the symbol with dots 1,3,4 (whole or 16th rest), musical context says that the symbol must indicate a whole rest. Octave marks An Octave Mark is included before a note symbol to specify the octave of the note. For instance, the 4th Octave is the octave starting with middle C and going up to the B above middle C. Octave symbols are only specified when needed. For instance, a melody proceeding upward from the first octave can, if moving by step, proceed to the second, third, and fourth octaves without requiring additional octave signs. The rule is that, in the absence of an octave mark specifying otherwise, notes always move by a unison, 2nd, or 3rd rather than a 6th, 7th, or octave. For instance, the following moves upward continuously, ending in octave 5:  Octave 2 C C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B B C C The rule for 4ths and 5ths is different, however: in the absence of an octave sign specifying otherwise, a melodic leap of a 4th or a 5th will always stay within the same octave as the previous note. For instance, the following always stays within Octave 2:  Octave 2 C G D A E B F C G D A E Because of the use of octave marks, clef symbols are technically not required in braille music. On occasion when transcribing print music into braille, clef symbols (bass clef, treble clef, or other) will be indicated simply so that the visually impaired musician will be aware of every detail of the original print score. Musical markings Musical indications like "dim", "cresc", or "rit" are inserted inline with the note and rhythm notation and, to differentiate them from note, octave, and other musical signs, are always preceded by the "word sign" (dots 3,4,5). Slurs may be indicated by a slur sign between two notes or a bracket slur surrounding a group of notes to be slurred. Musical signs such as staccato or tenuto are generally placed before the note or chord they affect. The musical signs shown on the chart are shown modifying a quarter note C (dots 1,4,5,6). "Music hyphen" is used to indicate that a measure of music will be continued on the following line (this happens somewhat more often in braille music than in print music). A "word apostrophe" indicates that the word will be continued on the following line. Repetition symbols Like literary braille, braille music tends to be rather bulky. Because of this, a system of repetition symbols--much more extensive than that used in print music--is employed to reduce page turns, size of scores, and expense of printing. The repetition symbol (dots 2,3,5,6) is used similarly to the musical repetition symbol to indicate that a beat, a half measure, or a full measure is to be repeated. In addition, braille music often includes instructions such as "repeat measure 2 here" or "repeat measures 5-7 here". Such indications are in addition to the commonly used repeat marks and first and second endings employed in print music, which are also used in braille music. Contrapuntal lines and chords within a staff Unlike print music notation, braille music is an entirely linear format. Therefore certain conventions must be used to indicate contrapuntal lines and chords, situations where more than one note is played simultaneously within a single staff. In-accords Independent contrapuntal lines within a single staff are indicated via whole-measure or part-measure "in-accords". First one of the contrapuntal lines is given, then the second contrapuntal line, enclosed by the in-accord symbols. The in-accord symbols indicate that the two lines are to be played simultaneously. Interval notation Homophonic chordal sections are written using interval notation. For instance, the notation "quarter-note-C, 3rd, 5th" would indicate playing a C along with the notes a 3rd and 5th higher than C, altogether making a chord C-E-G a quarter note in length. There is also a limited ability within the interval notation to allow, for instance, an inner voice to move briefly with rhythmic independence from the other voices. Such movement is common in four-part chorale style and it is convenient to be able to handle this situation without resorting to in-accords. Reading the interval notation is somewhat complicated by the fact that some staves use bottom up notation (the bottom note of each chord is specified and intervals are read upwards from the given note) and some staves use top down notation (the top note of each chord is specified and intervals are read downwards from the given note). The modern convention regarding the choice between bottom-up or top-down interval notation is to specify the main note (either the bass line or the melody line) and let the intervals go up or down from there, as appropriate. For instance, in most piano music the left hand specifies the bottom note and intervals go bottom-up while the right hand specifies the top note and intervals go top-down. Many older scores use a different method, however, with all staves reading bottom up or all staves reading top down. Most scores have a note indicating the direction of the intervalic notation. However in some older scores the direction of the interval notation must be established from the musical context. By convention, in-accords are given in the same direction as the direction used by the interval notation. For instance, if interval notation is bottom-up then the in-accords for that staff will be given with the lowest contrapuntal line first, then the next higher contrapuntal line second, and so on. Thus, examining the in-accords is one way to establish whether the interval notation on a particular staff is bottom-up or top-down. Dealing with different staves Much print music is written on several different staves. For instance, piano music is typically written on two different staves combined into the grand staff: one for treble clef and one for bass clef, while choral music often has four different staves (one each for soprano, alto, tenor, and bass). In print music, the notes in different staves that play simultaneously are aligned vertically. Because of the nature of braille music, and the fact that the braille musician can typically read only one staff at a time, multiple staves are handled in several different ways depending on the complexity of the music and other considerations. Bar over bar format is most similar to print music. Simple piano music in bar over bar format is quite similar to print music, with right hand notation on the top line and left hand notation on the bottom line. Some degree of vertical alignment between the right hand and the left hand is maintained. Other ways of dealing with multiple staff music are line over line format, section by section format, paragraph style, and bar by bar format. As a rule these formats take up less space on the page but require more of the musician in working out how to fit the staves together. For instance, in a piano score notated in section by section format, the right hand part may be written out for the first 8 measures, followed by the left-hand part for the same 8 measures. No attempt is made by the transcriber to align or synchronize the right hand and left hand parts for these measures. The same procedure is followed for measures 9-16 (first music for the right hand, then for left hand), and so on, section by section, throughout the score. On a practical level, the musician learning a score notated in section by section format learns and memorizes one section right hand alone, then the same section left hand alone, then works out the two hands together by memory and by referencing various spots in the braille music score to work out mentally how the sections fit together. A note from the transcriber in the score often clarifies the format used. However, with many older and more complex scores the format must be determined by examination of the music and context. Variations in Braille music Over the years and in the many different countries of the world, a variety of minor differences in braille music practice have arisen. Some countries have preferred a different standard for interval or staff notation, or have used different codes for various less common musical notations.   An international effort to standardize the braille music code has continued to make progress, culminating in the updates summarized in Braille Music Code 1997 and detailed in the New International Manual of Braille Music Notation (1997). However, braille music users should be aware that they will continue to encounter divergent usages when ordering scores from printing houses and libraries, because these scores are often older and come from various countries. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille_music , , , , , Aromatherapy and Aromachology - Aromachology and Aromatherapy both promote the positive effects of fragrance on mood and emotion but that may be where the similarity ends References in commercial writing often blur their distinctions leaving many readers confused. Aromachology is the scientific study of the effects of fragrance on human psychology and behavior. This term was coined in 1989 by what is now the Sense of Smell Institute, a division of The Fragrance Foundation, which in turn is the non-profit, educational arm of the international fragrance industry. Aromachology emphasizes controlled scientific study, deals only with the psychological effects of fragrance and considers both natural and synthetic odorants. Aromachology is driven by corporate sponsorship and ultimately endeavors to identify fragrance applications that have commercial opportunity. Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of plant essential oils to improve physical health as well as psychological health. The term was first used in 1928 by French chemist Rene Maurice Gattefosse to describe the healing action of aromatic plant essences but the use of herbs and plant oils dates back to antiquity. The practice of Aromatherapy remains an integral part of folk medicine. The pharmacology of essential oils is seldom studied scientifically as there is no commercial incentive to do so. Aromatherapy uses only pure, natural essential oils, each with specific attributes for healing, and how they smell is secondary to their therapeutic action.  How are they different? The two disciplines appear to overlap where aromatherapy uses inhalation of diffused oils to treat conditions related to mood and emotion, such as anxiety, depression, lethargy, or irritability. But even in this circumstance, there is an important distinction. Aromatherapy does not endorse the use of artificial fragrances which have no therapeutic value and can not affect mood beyond the psychological effects of "odor memory". On the other hand, researchers in Aromachology will point out that the special virtues of essential oils are not supported by a substantial body of clinical evidence. But is there really a conflict? The effect of fragrance on emotion The fact that our emotions are affected by fragrance is widely accepted. Memory and emotion are often strongly associated with odor. We have all experienced it. A whiff of a particular odor and our minds are suddenly flooded with a memory and the emotions associated with that memory. There is an anatomical basis for this phenomenon. Within the human brain the primary olfactory cortex, which processes information about odors, is directly connected to the amygdala, which controls the expression and experience of emotion, and the hippocampus, which controls the consolidation of memories. These are primitive functions that have been around since the time in early evolution when we needed to use our sense of smell for survival. Controlled studies would suggest that our appreciation of an odor and our emotional response to it, are determined by the emotional context in which the odor was first encountered, even if the association is subtle and we are not consciously aware of it. This is why our appreciation of odors is such a personal matter and why there are significant differences in odor preference from one culture to the next.  Both natural and synthetic odorants can trigger a psychological response which is at the heart of Aromachology but only the appropriate essential oil will cause a specific physiological response which is the healing goal of Aromatherapy. Are the claims of Aromatherapy unproven?  It is true that there is little scientific research into the pharmacology of essential oils. Lack of funding is the primary reason. Essential oils are not patentable and so with a few exceptions there is no commercial incentive for conducting research. On the other hand, thanks to Aromachology controlled studies have validated some of the historical claims for essential oils. For example, it has been proven that Rosemary enhances cognitive performance, Peppermint is invigorating and Lavender is relaxing. The practice of Aromatherapy has withstood the test of time. Within western cultures its popularity as a complementary medicine continues to grow.  In reality there is no conflict between Aromachology and Aromatherapy because they have different agendas and neither invalidates the other. In the end, Aromachology may prove to be of great benefit to Aromatherapy by adding the weight of modern research to the large body of common knowledge that has supported it for hundreds of years. Marilyn Flook manages the Forever Fragrant website which promotes aromatherapy and natural products. Learn more about essential oils and their practical uses. Tips on Buying Aromatherapy Products Aromatherapy Benefits Aromatherapy Gift Baskets Aromatherapy Stress - How Aromatherapy can combat its Effects Aromatherapy Accessory: Products to Aid Aromatherapy Evolution of Aromatherapy Tension-type Headache? Find Relief with Aromatherapy What is Amrita Aromatherapy and What Makes it Special? The Benefits Of Aromatherapy And Essential Oils Aromatherapy Oil: Pamper Your Skin and Your Senses Will Thank You Aromatherapy of Rome - A perfect way to Relax Jewelry Used for Aromatherapy History of Aromatherapy Setting up the Environment for Aromatherapy Massage Modern Aromatherapy - A New Age for Natural Medicine Aromatherapy for Health Uplifting Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Candles Types of Aromatherapy Facials Aromatherapy Recipes for Depression Aromatherapy Recipes for Acne Aromatherapy Recipes for Hair Aromatherapy Recipes for Stress Aromatherapy Candle Making Aromatherapy Candles Benefits How does Aromatherapy Work Aromatic Bath Salts Aromatherapy and Facials Aroma Therapy: Titillating the Senses  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/aromachology-and-aromatherapy-do-you-know-the-difference.html , , , Vibratese - A method of communication through touch. It was developed by F. A. Geldard, 1957. It is a tactile system based on both practical considerations and on results from a set of controlled psychophysical experiments Vibratese was composed of 45 basic elements, the tactile equivalent of numerals and letters. The entire English alphabet and numerals 0 to 9 could be communicated this way. Geldard reported that with proper training, rates of more than 35 words per minute were  possible for reading. These rates are three times that of an expert with Morse code. Vibratese is no longer in use, with little literature available on the subject. http://www.servinghistory.com/topics/Vibratese , , Senses - There is no firm agreement among neurologists as to the number of senses because of differing definitions of what constitutes a sense The physiological capacities within organisms that provide inputs for perception. The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception. The nervous system has a specific sensory system or organ, dedicated to each sense. Definition - There is no firm agreement among neurologists as to the number of senses because of differing definitions of what constitutes a sense. One definition states that an exteroceptive sense is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived.The traditional five senses are sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste, a classification attributed to Aristotle. Humans are considered to have at least five additional senses that include: nociception (pain); equilibrioception (balance); proprioception and kinaesthesia (joint motion and acceleration); sense of time; thermoception (temperature differences); and possibly an additional weak magnetoception (direction), and six more if interoceptive senses (see other internal senses below) are also considered. One commonly recognized categorisation for human senses is as follows: chemoreception; photoreception; mechanoreception; and thermoception. This categorisation has been criticized as too restrictive, however, as it does not include categories for accepted senses such as the sense of time and sense of pain. Non-human animals may possess senses that are absent in humans, such as electroreception and detection of polarized light. A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "A system that consists of a group of sensory cell types that responds to a specific physical phenomenon, and that corresponds to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted." Disputes about the number of senses typically arise around the classification of the various cell types and their mapping to regions of the brain. Senses Sight Sight or vision is the ability of the brain and eye to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range of (light) and, in some cases, determine between varying colors, hues, and brightness. There is some disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or three senses. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of photons of light) and brightness (amplitude/intensity - number of photons of light). Some argue that stereopsis, the perception of depth, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded as a cognitive (that is, post-sensory) function of brain to interpret sensory input and to derive new information. The inability to see is called blindness. Hearing Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception. Since sound is vibrations propagating through a medium such as air, the detection of these vibrations, that is the sense of the hearing, is a mechanical sense because these vibrations are mechanically conducted from the eardrum through a series of tiny bones to hair-like fibers in the inner ear which detect mechanical motion of the fibers within a range of about 20 to 20,000 hertz, with substantial variation between individuals. Hearing at high frequencies declines with age. Sound can also be detected as vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower frequencies than that can be heard are detected this way. The inability to hear is called deafness. Taste Taste or gustation is one of the two main "chemical" senses. There are at least four types of tastes that "buds" (receptors) on the tongue detect, and hence there are anatomists who argue that these constitute five or more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information to a slightly different region of the brain. The inability to taste is called ageusia. The four well-known receptors detect sweet, salty, sour, and bitter, although the receptors for sweet and bitter have not been conclusively identified. A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami, was first theorised in 1908 and its existence confirmed in 2000. The umami receptor detects the amino acid glutamate, a flavour commonly found in meat and in artificial flavourings such as monosodium glutamate. Note: that taste is not the same as flavour; flavour includes the smell of a food as well as its taste. Smell Smell or olfaction is the other "chemical" sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odor molecules possess a variety of features and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The inability to smell is called anosmia. Some neurons in the nose are specialized to detect pheromones. Touch Touch, also called tactition or mechanoreception, is a perception resulting from activation of neural receptors, generally in the skin including hair follicles, but also in the tongue, throat, and mucosa. A variety of pressure receptors respond to variations in pressure (firm, brushing, sustained, etc.). The touch sense of itching caused by insect bites or allergies involves special itch-specific neurons in the skin and spinal cord. The loss or impairment of the ability to feel anything touched is called tactile anesthesia. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin that may result from nerve damage and may be permanent or temporary. Balance and acceleration Balance, equilibrioception, or vestibular sense is the sense which allows an organism to sense body movement, direction, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance. The organ of equilibrioception is the vestibular labyrinthine system found in both of the inner ears. Technically this organ is responsible for two senses of angular momentum and linear acceleration (which also senses gravity), but they are known together as equilibrioception. The vestibular nerve conducts information from sensory receptors in three ampulla that sense motion of fluid in three semicircular canals caused by three-dimensional rotation of the head. The vestibular nerve also conducts information from the utricle and the saccule which contain hair-like sensory receptors that bend under the weight of otoliths (which are small crystals of calcium carbonate) that provide the inertia needed to detect head rotation, linear acceleration, and the direction of gravitational force. Temperature Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold) by the skin and including internal skin passages, or rather, theheat flux (the rate of heat flow) in these areas. There are specialized receptors for cold (declining temperature) and to heat. The cold receptors play an important part in the dogs sense of smell, telling wind direction, the heat receptors are sensitive to infrared radiation and can occur in specialized organs for instance in pit vipers. The thermoceptors in the skin are quite different from the homeostatic thermoceptors in the brain (hypothalamus) which provide feedback on internal body temperature. Kinesthetic sense Proprioception, the kinesthetic sense, provides the parietal cortex of the brain with information on the relative positions of the parts of the body. Neurologists test this sense by telling patients to close their eyes and touch the tip of a finger to their nose. Assuming proper proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where the hand actually is, even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses. Proprioception and touch are related in subtle ways, and their impairment results in surprising and deep deficits in perception and action. Pain Nociception (physiological pain) signals near-damage or damage to tissue. The three types of pain receptors are cutaneous (skin), somatic (joints and bones) and visceral (body organs). It was previously believed that pain was simply the overloading of pressure receptors, but research in the first half of the 20th century indicated that pain is a distinct phenomenon that intertwines with all of the other senses, including touch. Pain was once considered an entirely subjective experience, but recent studies show that pain is registered in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the brain. Direction Magnetoception (or magnetoreception) is the ability to detect the direction one is facing based on the Earth's magnetic field. Directional awareness is most commonly observed in birds, though it is also present to a limited extent in humans. It has also been observed in insects such as bees. Although there is no dispute that this sense exists in many avians (it is essential to the navigational abilities of migratory birds), it is not a well-understood phenomenon. One study has found that cattle make use of magnetoception, as they tend to align themselves in a north-south direction. Magnetotactic bacteria build miniature magnets inside themselves and use them to determine their orientation relative to the Earth's magnetic field. Other internal senses An internal sense or interoception is "any sense that is normally stimulated from within the body". These involve numerous sensory receptors in internal organs, such as stretch receptors that are neurologically linked to the brain. Pulmonary stretch receptors are found in the lungs and control the respiratory rate. The chemoreceptor trigger zone is an area of the medulla in the brain that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with the vomiting center. Cutaneous receptors in the skin not only respond to touch, pressure, and temperature, but also respond to vasodilation in the skin such as blushing. Stretch receptors in the gastrointestinal tract sense gas distension that may result in colic pain. Stimulation of sensory receptors in the esophagus result in sensations felt in the throat when swallowing, vomiting, or during acid reflux. Sensory receptors in pharynx mucosa, similar to touch receptors in the skin, sense foreign objects such as food that may result in a gag reflex and corresponding gagging sensation. Stimulation of sensory receptors in the urinary bladder and rectum may result in sensations of fullness. Stimulation of stretch sensors that sense dilation of various blood vessels may result in pain, for example headache caused by vasodilation of brain arteries. Non-human senses Analogous to human senses Other living organisms have receptors to sense the world around them, including many of the senses listed above for humans. However, the mechanisms and capabilities vary widely. Echolocation Certain animals, including bats and cetaceans, have the ability to determine orientation to other objects through interpretation of reflected sound (like sonar). They most often use this to navigate through poor lighting conditions or to identify and track prey. There is currently an uncertainty whether this is simply an extremely developed post-sensory interpretation of auditory perceptions or it actually constitutes a separate sense. Resolution of the issue will require brain scans of animals while they actually perform echolocation, a task that has proven difficult in practice. Blind people report they are able to navigate by interpreting reflected sounds (esp. their own footsteps), a phenomenon which is known as human echolocation. Smell Most non-human mammals have a much keener sense of smell than humans, although the mechanism is similar. Sharks combine their keen sense of smell with timing to determine the direction of a smell. They follow the nostril that first detected the smell. Insects have olfactory receptors on their antennae. Vomeronasal organ Many animals (salamanders, reptiles, mammals) have a vomeronasal organ that is connected with the mouth cavity. In mammals it is mainly used to detect pheromones to mark their territory, trails, and sexual state. Reptiles like snakes and monitor lizards make extensive use of it as a smelling organ, transferring scent molecules to the vomeronasal organ with the tips of the forked tongue. In mammals it is often associated with a special behavior called flehmen characterized by uplifting of the lips. The organ is vestigial in humans, because associated neurons have not been found that give any sensory input in humans. Vision Cats have the ability to see in low light due to muscles surrounding their irises to contract and expand pupils as well as the tapetum lucidum, a reflective membrane that optimizes the image. Pitvipers, pythons and some boas have organs that allow them to detect infrared light, such that these snakes are able to sense the body heat of their prey. The common vampire bat may also have an infrared sensor on its nose. It has been found that birds and some other animals are tetrachromats and have the ability to see in the ultraviolet down to 300 nanometers. Bees and dragonflies are also able to see in the ultraviolet. Balance Ctenophora have a balance receptor (a statocyst) that works very differently from the mammalian's semi-circular canals. Not analogous to human senses In addition, some animals have senses that humans do not, including the following: Electroreception (or electroception) is the ability to detect electric fields. Several species of fish, sharks and rays have the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate vicinity. Some fish passively sense changing nearby electric fields; some generate their own weak electric fields, and sense the pattern of field potentials over their body surface; and some use these electric field generating and sensing capacities for social communication. The mechanisms by which electroceptive fish construct a spatial representation from very small differences in field potentials involve comparisons of spike latencies from different parts of the fish's body. The only order of mammals that is known to demonstrate electroception is the monotreme order. Among these mammals, the platypus has the most acute sense of electroception. Body modification enthusiasts have experimented with magnetic implants to attempt to replicate this sense, however in general humans (and probably other mammals) can detect electric fields only indirectly by detecting the effect they have on hairs. An electrically charged balloon, for instance, will exert a force on human arm hairs, which can be felt through tactition and identified as coming from a static charge (and not from wind or the like). This is however not electroception as it is a post-sensory cognitive action. Magnetoreception (magnetoception) is the ability to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location. This sense plays a role in the navigational abilities of several animal species and has been postulated as a method for animals to develop regional maps. Pressure detection uses the organ of Weber, a system consisting of three appendages of vertebrae transferring changes in shape of the gas bladder to the middle ear. It can be used to regulate the buoyancy of the fish. Fish like the weather fish and other loaches are also known to respond to low pressure areas but they lack a swim bladder. Current detection The lateral line in fish and aquatic forms of amphibians is a detection system of water currents, mostly consisting of vortices. The lateral line is also sensitive to low frequency vibrations. The mechanoreceptors are hair cells, the same mechanoreceptors for vestibular sense and hearing. It is used primarily for navigation, hunting, and schooling. The receptors of the electrical sense are modified hair cells of the lateral line system. Polarized light direction/detection is used by bees to orient themselves, especially on cloudy days. Cuttlefish can also perceive the polarization of light. Most sighted humans can in fact learn to roughly detect large areas of polarization by an effect called Haidinger's brush, however this is considered an entoptic phenomenon rather than a separate sense. Slit sensillae of spiders detect mechanical strain in the exoskeleton, providing information on force and vibrations. Plant senses Some plants have sensory organs, for example the Venus fly trap, that respond to vibration, light, water, scents, or other specific chemicals. Some plants sense the location of other plants and attack and eat part of them. Culture The five senses are enumerated as the "five material faculties" (pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ avakanti) in Buddhist literature. They appear in allegorical representation as early as in the Katha Upanishad (roughly 6th century BC), as five horses drawing the "chariot" of the body, guided by the mind as "chariot driver". Depictions of the five senses as allegory became a popular subject for seventeenth-century artists, especially among Dutch and Flemish Baroque painters. A typical example is Gérard de Lairesse's Allegory of the Five Senses (1668), in which each of the figures in the main group allude to a sense: sight is the reclining boy with a convex mirror, hearing is the cupid-like boy with a triangle, smell is represented by the girl with flowers, taste by the woman with the fruit and touch by the woman holding the bird. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense , First steps to understanding the needs of a deaf person - Before anyone with normal hearing can start to support a deaf person, they need to understand precisely what problems the deaf person is having The trouble is, though, that our everyday language is woefully inadequate for the purpose. For example, people tend just to think that a deaf person doesn't 'hear' what is going on on the assumption that the remedy is merely to find a way of making it louder. However, 'hear' is not really a particularly helpful word anyway because it is so ambiguous. A sound may not loud enough for a deaf person, but other questions need to be asked, particularly for 'hearing' speech. Can the deaf person, for example, register (hear) that someone is speaking, but not be able to distinguish the words clearly enough to follow what is being said? If so - as is commonly the case - is there more of a problem with some voices than with others, like with the high pitched ones of children? Is there more of a problem in a noisy environment where voices seem to merge into the background noise? Are some sounds, which appear to be acceptably loud to people with normal hearing, too painful to endure. The list of questions could grow longer. So whether or not a deaf person can 'hear' a sound is nowhere near as helpful as whether they can listen to it comfortably, 'understand' it or 'interpret' it. So it is important to understand something about hearing problems in order to be able to express and understand the needs of a deaf person - see the links in the box above right. Other problems with the ears such as 'tinnitus' and 'vertigo' are not considered here because they have blessedly never affected me severely and so I have not had to try to understand them at all deeply or to develop coping strategies for them http://www.deaftalk.co.uk/needs.htm , , , , , ,



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